Salmonella is the second most common intestinal infection in the United States. More than 7,000 cases of Salmonella were confirmed in 2009; however the majority of cases go unreported. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that over 1.4 million people in the U.S. contract Salmonella each year, and that an average of 20,000 hospitalizations and almost 400 deaths occur from Salmonella poisoning.
Salmonella infection usually occurs when a person eats food contaminated with the feces of animals or humans carrying the bacteria. Salmonella outbreaks are commonly associated with eggs, meat and poultry, but these bacteria can also contaminate other foods such as fruits and vegetables. Foods that are most likely to contain Salmonella include raw or undercooked eggs, raw milk, contaminated water, and raw or undercooked meats – even peanut butter.
Salmonella is generally divided into two categories. Non-typhoidal Salmonella is the most common form, and is carried by both humans and animals. Most serotypes of Salmonella, such as Salmonella Javiana and Salmonella Enteritidis cause non-typhoidal Salmonella.
Symptoms of Salmonella infection, or Salmonellosis, range widely, and are sometimes absent altogether. The most common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.
Typical Symptoms of Salmonella infection: Appear 6 to 72 hours after eating contaminated food and last for 3 to 7 days without treatment.
- Abdominal Cramps
- Fever of 100 F to 102 F
- Bloody diarrhea
- Body Aches
Complications of Salmonella
Complications of Salmonella poisoning are more likely to occur among young children and people age 65 or older. Possible complications include:
Reactive Arthritis: Reactive arthritis is thought to occur in 2 to 15 percent of Salmonella patients. Symptoms include inflammation of the joints, eyes, or reproductive or urinary organs. On average, symptoms appear 18 days after infection.
Focal Infection: A focal infection occurs when Salmonella bacteria takes root in body tissue and causes illnesses such as arthritis or endocartitis. It is caused by typhoidal Salmonella only.
Salmonella infections generally last 3 to 7 days, and often do not require treatment. People with severe dehydration may need rehydration through an IV.
Antibiotics are recommended for those at risk of invasive disease, including infants under three months old. Typhoid fever is treated with a 14-day course of antibiotics.
Unfortunately, treatment of Salmonella has become more difficult as it has become more resistant to antibiotics. Finding the right antibiotic for a case of Salmonella is crucial to treating this bacterial infection.
Prevention of Salmonella Infection
These safety measures can help prevent Salmonella poisoning:
- Wash your hands before preparing food and after handling raw meats
- Cook meat and eggs thoroughly until they reach an internal temperature of 160 F (71 C)
- Do not eat foods containing raw eggs or milk, such as undercooked French toast
- Avoid cooking raw meat in the microwave, as it may not reach a high enough internal temperature to kill Salmonella bacteria and may be unevenly cooked
- Avoid bringing uncooked meat into contact with food that will not be cooked (i.e. salad)
- Wash hands with soap after handling reptiles or animal feces
- Always wash your hands after going to the bathroom
Additional Resources for Salmonella
About-Salmonella.com is a comprehensive site with in-depth information about Salmonella bacteria and Salmonellosis.
SalmonellaLitigation.com is a Website that provides information about lawsuits and litigation brought on behalf of victims of Salmonella outbreaks nationwide. The site provides extensive information about sources of Salmonella outbreaks.
Salmonella Blog provides up-to-date news related to Salmonella outbreaks, research, and more.
Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits
- A & R Bar-be-que Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Tennessee (2009)
- Adrift Restaurant Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Washington (2005)
- Baker Street Restaurant Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Wisconsin (2010)
- Beaches Sandy Bay Resort Salmonella Outbreak Litigation – Jamaica (2005)
- Black Forest Bakery Salmonella Outbreak lawsuits – Michigan (2002)
- Bogey’s Restaurant / Quality Inn Salmonella Lawsuits – Washington (2003)
- Brixx and Barley Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – New York (2019)
- Brook-Lea Country Club Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – New York (2002)
- Burrito Delight Fort Lupton Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – Colorado (2018)
- Café Santa Fe Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Arkansas (2005)
- Caldwell Foods Alfalfa Sprouts Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – California (2010)
- Caldwell Parish Jambalaya Salmonella Outbreak – Louisiana (2017)
- Cargill Ground Beef Salmonella Newport Outbreak – Nationwide (2009)
- Cargill Ground Turkey Salmonella Heidelberg Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (2011)
- Casa Lopez Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Ohio (2010)
- Caudill Alfalfa Sprouts Salmonella Outbreak lawsuits – Multistate (2009)
- Chamberlain Farms Cantaloupe Salmonella Outbreak – Multistate (2012)
- Chiang Mai House Thai Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – Idaho (2017)
- Chili’s Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Illinois (2003)
- Chincoteague Cook-Off Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Mulitstate (2017)
- City of Alamosa Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Colorado (2010)
- ConAgra Peter Pan & Great Value Peanut Butter Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Nationwide (2006-2007)
- ConAgra Pot Pie Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (2007)
- Corky & Lenny’s Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Ohio (2006)
- Daniele International Pepper Salame/Salami Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (2010)
- DeFusco’s Zeppoles Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Rhode Island (2011)
- Del Monte Cantaloupe Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Nationwide (2011)
- Economart Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – North Dakota (2005)
- Fareway Chicken Salad Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – Multistate (2018)
- Fern Hill Golf & Country Club Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Michigan (2005)
- Gold Dust West Salmonella Outbreak & Litigation – Nevada (2019)
- Golden Corral Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Georgia (2003)
- Harmony Farms Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Washington & Oregon (2003)
- Hy-Vee Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Multistate (2018)
- J.B.S. Tolleson Raw Beef Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Mulitstate (2018)
- Jewel Deli Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Illinois (2014)
- Jimmy John’s & Tiny Greens Organic Farms Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (2010)
- Jimmy John’s Sprouts Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – Multistate (2018)
- Kellogg’s Honey Smacks Salmonella Lawsuits – Multistate (2018)
- KFC Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Colorado (2002)
- Kratom Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – Multistate (2018)
- La California Mexican Restaurant Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – Colorado (2018)
- La Luz Mexican Grill Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – Colorado (2018)
- Lancaster’s BBQ Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – North Carolina (2012)
- Linh’s Bakery Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Virginia (2001)
- Los Dos Amigos Mexican Restaurant Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Oregon (2010)
- Malt-O-Meal Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (1998)
- Marie Callender’s Cheesy Chicken and Rice Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (2010)
- Melon Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – Multistate (2018)
- Moby Dick House of Kabob Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – Virginia (2019)
- Morimoto Napa Salmonella Outbreak and Litigation – California (2016)
- Old South Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – South Carolina (2005)
- Orchid Island Orange Juice Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (2005)
- Paramount Farms Almonds Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – California, Nationwide (2004)
- Pars Cove Salmonella Outbreak at Taste of Chicago Lawsuits – Illinois (2007)
- Peanut Corporation of America Peanut Butter Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (2008-2009)
- Quizno’s Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Minnesota (2007)
- San Antonio Taco Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Tennessee (2000)
- Seasons on the Pond Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Colorado (2003)
- Sheetz and Coronet Foods Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Pennsylvania, Eastern States (2004)
- Smiling Hara Tempeh Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits- North Carolina (2012)
- Sprouters Northwest Jimmy John’s Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Washington, Oregon (2011)
- Subway Salmonella Hvittingfoss Outbreak Lawsuits – Illinois (2010)
- Sun Orchard Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Multistate (1999)
- Sunland and Trader Joe’s Peanut Butter Salmonella Outbreak – Multistate (2012)
- Sunrise Commodities Pine Nuts Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Multistate (2011)
- Sunset House Salmonella Outbreak Litigation – Wyoming (2003)
- Sushi King Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Arkansas (2006)
- Susie Cantaloupe Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Washington (2002)
- Taco Bell Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Multistate (2012)
- Union International Foods Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Western States (2008-2009)
- Veggie Booty Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (2007)
- Viva Cantaloupe Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Washington, California (2001)
- Wal-Mart Jalapeno and Serrano Pepper Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuit – Nationwide (2008)
- Wal-Mart Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Indiana (2006)
- Western Sizzlin’ Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – North Carolina (2002)
- Wright County Egg Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Nationwide (2010)
- Wyndham Anatole Hotel Salmonella Outbreak Lawsuits – Texas (2002)