Southern Specialties Inc. of Pompano Beach, Florida is voluntarily recalling select bags of Marketside brand green beans and butternut squash because they have the potential to be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, an organism which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. Although healthy individuals may suffer only short-term symptoms such as high fever, severe headache, stiffness, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, Listeria infection can cause miscarriages and stillbirths among pregnant women.

The company shipped the recalled product to one retail distribution center. Although most of the product was retrieved before distribution to retail stores, some product shipped on February 17th may have reached select stores in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia. So, in an abundance of caution, we are issuing this public announcement.

This recall was voluntarily issued after a raw material supplier notified the company that it was issuing a recall after a routine test of a food contact surface tested positive for the bacterium. As a precautionary measure, Southern Specialties is recalling all products that were repacked at its facility on the same repacking line as the supplier’s product. None of the products have tested positive.

The company is carrying out this recall with the knowledge of the U.S. Food & Drug Administration.

Consumers can use the following information to determine if they have the recalled product. Anyone who has the recalled product should not consume it and either destroy it or return it to the place of purchase for a refund.

Brand Product Description UPC
Located in the white box on back of package in the lower right hand corner
Best if Used By date
Located in the white box on the front of the package in the right hand corner
Lot codes on bag
Located in the white box on the front of the package in the right hand corner
Marketside Bagged Green Beans, 32oz. (2 LB) 907g 681131457385 MAR-9-2019 83931-123 or 83939-124
Marketside Bagged Green Beans, 12 oz. (340g) 681131328869 MAR-8-2019 83928-628 or 83932-123
Marketside Bagged Butternut Squash, 16oz. (1 LB) 454g 681131122351 MAR-6-2019 83940-319 or 83940-139

Listeria:  Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of Listeria outbreaks. The Listeria lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Listeria and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $650 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.  Our Listeria lawyers have litigated Listeria cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of foods, such as deli meat, cantaloupe, cheese, celery and milk.

If you or a family member became ill with a Listeria infection after consuming food and you’re interested in pursuing a legal claim, contact the Marler Clark Listeria attorneys for a free case evaluation.

According to health authorities in Australia, there has been a confirmed case of listeriosis which has been resulted in a death, may be linked to the consumption of foods supplied to an eastern suburbs private hospital.

A Dandenong South commercial caterer, I Cook Foods,has been ordered to suspend production while the source of infection is being investigated. Testing on samples of some food produced by the premise has returned positive results of Listeria monocytogenes. The caterer provides services to a range of private hospitals, aged care facilities and Meals on Wheels services in the north eastern and south east suburbs of Melbourne, Traralgon and Ballarat.

Affected private hospitals, aged care facilities and Meals on Wheels services are being urged to dispose of any foods produced by the caterer between 13 January 2019 and 21 February 2019.

People who are at an increased risk of listeriosis include those who are immunocompromised, the elderly, pregnant women and their fetuses and newborn babies.

The main route of transmission is through ingestion of contaminated food. Other routes of transmission include from mother to fetus via the placenta or at birth. The infectious dose is unknown. Healthy adults are usually not affected but may experience mild to moderate flu like symptoms.

Infection in pregnant women may be mild and a temperature before or during birth may be the only sign. However, the infection can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta which can result in stillbirth or premature birth.

In immunosuppressed patients, listeriosis usually presents as a brain inflammation, brain abscess or bacteremia. Pneumonia, endocarditis and granulomatous lesions in the liver and other joints have also been described.

It is not possible to test for listeriosis in people who may have been exposed to listeria but are not showing symptoms. Early recognition and treatment in symptomatic people are important in high risk groups, such as pregnant women and immune-compromised people.

If listeriosis is suspected in a high-risk person, immediate testing (blood or stool cultures) should be undertaken. Immediate treatment with intravenous antibiotics should be considered in consultation with your local infectious disease’s unit in high risk symptomatic patients. It is important to educate people in high risk groups about the foods likely to be contaminated, and about safe food handling and storage. See Listeria Food Poisoning for more information.

Listeria:  Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of Listeria outbreaks. The Listeria lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Listeria and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $650 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.  Our Listeria lawyers have litigated Listeria cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of foods, such as deli meat, cantaloupe, cheese, celery and milk.

If you or a family member became ill with a Listeria infection after consuming food and you’re interested in pursuing a legal claim, contact the Marler Clark Listeria attorneys for a free case evaluation.

165368 C. Corporation, doing business as Long Phung Food Products, a Houston, Texas establishment, is recalling an undetermined amount of ready-to-eat pork products that may be adulterated with Listeria monocytogenes, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today.

The ready-to-eat pork patty rolls were produced on various dates from May 21, 2018 through Nov. 16, 2018. The following products are subject to recall:

  • 16-oz. plastic vacuum packed packages containing a single marinated roll of “Long Phung 1988 GIO LUA” VIETNAMESE BRAND COOKED PORK PATTY ROLL ANCHOVY FLAVORED FISH SAUCE ADDED.
  • 32-oz. plastic vacuum packed packages containing a single marinated roll of “Long Phung 1988 GIO LUA” VIETNAMESE STYLE COOKED PORK PATTY ROLL ANCHOVY FLAVORED FISH SAUCE ADDED.
  • 14-oz. plastic vacuum packed packages containing a single marinated roll of “Long Phung 1988 CHA QUE” VIETNAMESE STYLE FRIED CINNAMON PORK PATTY ROLL ANCHOVY FLAVORED FISH SAUCE ADDED.
  • 16-oz. plastic vacuum packed packages containing a single marinated roll of “Long Phung 1988 GIO HUE” VIETNAMESE BRAND GARLIC & PEPPER PORK PATTY ROLL ANCHOVY FLAVORED FISH SAUCE ADDED.
  • 32-oz. plastic vacuum packed packages containing a single marinated roll of “Long Phung 1988 GIO HUE” VIETNAMESE COOKED PORK PATTY ROLL WITH GARLIC SEASONING ANCHOVY FLAVORED FISH SAUCE ADDED.
  • 16-oz. plastic vacuum packed packages containing a single marinated roll of “Long Phung 1988 CHA CHIEN” VIETNAMESE STYLE FRIED PORK PATTY ANCHOVY FLAVORED FISH SAUCE ADDED.
  • 16-oz. plastic vacuum packed packages containing a single marinated roll of “Long Phung GIO BI” VIETNAMESE BRAND COOKED PORK & PORK SKIN PATTY ROLL FLAVORED WITH ANCHOVY FLAVORED FISH SAUCE.

The products subject to recall bear establishment number “EST. 13561” inside the USDA mark of inspection. These items were shipped to distributors and retail locations nationwide.

On October 22, 2018, FSIS was notified of a cluster of listeriosis illnesses that were closely related. Working in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and state public health partners, FSIS determined that there is a link between the Listeria monocytogenes illnesses and ready-to-eat pork products produced by Long Phung Foods. The epidemiologic investigation identified a total of four listeriosis confirmed illnesses between July 1, 2017 and October 24, 2018. On November 19, 2018, whole genome sequencing of investigative samples collected from Long Phung Foods Establishment M13561 showed that the samples were closely related genetically to Listeria monocytogenes from ill people. FSIS is continuing to work with federal and state public health partners to determine if there are additional illnesses linked to these products and will provide updated information should it become available.

Consumption of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a serious infection that primarily affects older adults, persons with weakened immune systems, and pregnant women and their newborns. Less commonly, persons outside these risk groups are affected.

Listeriosis can cause fever, muscle aches, headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance and convulsions sometimes preceded by diarrhea or other gastrointestinal symptoms. An invasive infection spreads beyond the gastrointestinal tract. In pregnant women, the infection can cause miscarriages, stillbirths, premature delivery or life-threatening infection of the newborn. In addition, serious and sometimes fatal infections in older adults and persons with weakened immune systems. Listeriosis is treated with antibiotics. Persons in the higher-risk categories who experience flu-like symptoms within two months after eating contaminated food should seek medical care and tell the health care provider about eating the contaminated food.

FSIS is concerned that some product may be frozen and in consumers’ freezers. Consumers who have purchased these products are urged not to consume them.

Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of Listeria outbreaks. The Listeria lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Listeria and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $650 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.  Our Listeria lawyers have litigated Listeria cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of foods, such as deli meat, cantaloupe, cheese, celery and milk.

If you or a family member became ill with a Listeria infection after consuming food and you’re interested in pursuing a legal claim, contact the Marler Clark Listeria attorneys for a free case evaluation.

CTI Foods LLC, an Owingsville, Ky., establishment, is recalling approximately 6,720 pounds of ready-to-eat (RTE) Philly Beef Steak products that may be adulterated with Listeria monocytogenes, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today.

The RTE Philly Beef Steak products were produced on Aug. 9, 2018. The following products are subject to recall:

  • 672 cardboard cases labeled Classic Sysco having a NET WT of 10 lbs. The cardboard cases contain four 2.5 lb. bags of product.  Both the box and the bags are labeled “FULLY COOKED PHILLY BEEF STEAK SLICED Caramel Color Added” with a package code of 4887097.

The products subject to recall bear establishment number “EST. 19085” inside the USDA mark of inspection. These items were shipped to a food service warehouse in Hamilton, Ohio and were further distributed to food service locations.

The problem was discovered on Sept. 7, 2018, when the establishment received results from their laboratory that four finished product samples from their Aug. 9, 2018 production were potentially positive for Listeria monocytogenes.

There have been no confirmed reports of adverse reactions due to consumption of these products. Anyone concerned about an injury or illness should contact a healthcare provider.

Consumption of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes can cause listeriosis, a serious infection that primarily affects older adults, persons with weakened immune systems, and pregnant women and their newborns. Less commonly, persons outside these risk groups are affected.

Listeriosis can cause fever, muscle aches, headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance and convulsions sometimes preceded by diarrhea or other gastrointestinal symptoms. An invasive infection spreads beyond the gastrointestinal tract. In pregnant women, the infection can cause miscarriages, stillbirths, premature delivery or life-threatening infection of the newborn. In addition, serious and sometimes fatal infections in older adults and persons with weakened immune systems. Listeriosis is treated with antibiotics. Persons in the higher-risk categories who experience flu-like symptoms within two months after eating contaminated food should seek medical care and tell the health care provider about eating the contaminated food.

948 Sick with 180 Dead.  Outbreak began in January 2017.

According to South African health officials, on Friday 12th January, nine children under the age of 5 years presented to Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital with febrile gastro-enteritis. The pediatrician suspected foodborne disease, including listeriosis, as a possible cause. The environmental health practitioners (EHPs) were informed and on the same day visited the crèche and obtained samples from two unrelated polony brands (manufactured by Enterprise and Rainbow Chicken Limited (RCL) respectively) and submitted these to the laboratory for testing.

Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from stool collected from one of the ill children, and from both of the polony specimens collected from the crèche. These isolates were sent to the NICD Centre for Enteric Diseases and underwent whole genome sequencing and genomic analysis. The ST6 sequence type was confirmed on all three isolates on Saturday 27th January.

Following the lead from the tests performed on these children from Soweto and the food they had ingested, the EHPs (Environmental Health Practitioners), together with the NICD and DAFF representatives, accompanied by 3 technical advisors from the World Health Organization in Geneva, visited a food-production site in Polokwane and conducted an extensive food product and environmental sampling.

Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from over 30% of the environmental samples collected from this site, which happens to be the Enterprise factory in Polokwane.

To conclude the investigation, whole genome sequencing analysis was performed from this Enterprise factory and the results became available midnight or last night. The outbreak strain, ST6, was confirmed in at least 16 environmental samples collected from this Enterprise facility.

THE CONCLUSION FROM THIS IS THAT THE SOURCE OF THE PRESENT OUTBREAK CAN BE CONFIRMED TO BE THE ENTERPRISE FOOD-PRODUCTION FACILITY IN POLOKWANE

As of 2 March 2018, 948 laboratory-confirmed listeriosis cases have been reported to NICD from all provinces since 01 January 2017. To date, 742 cases were reported in 2017, and 206 cases in 2018. Females account for 56% (517/917) cases where gender is reported. Where age was reported (n=914), ages range from birth to 92 years (median 19 years) and 41% (379/914) are neonates aged ≤28 days. Of neonatal cases, 96% (363/379) had early-onset disease (birth to ≤6 days). Most cases have been reported from Gauteng Province (59%, 558/948) followed by Western Cape (12%, 116/948) and KwaZulu-Natal (7%, 67/948) provinces. Cases have been diagnosed in both public (65%, 611/948) and private (35%, 337/933) healthcare sectors. Amongst 948 cases, specimens that were positive for Listeria monocytogenes were blood culture (691, 73%), cerebrospinal fluid (206, 22%) and other including stool, pus, urine or other body site (71, 7%). Additional data on a limited number of cases is available where completed case investigation forms have been submitted or provincial investigations have been conducted. Race distribution amongst 305 cases is black (259, 85%), colored (22, 7%), white (23, 7%) and Asian (1, <1%). Over 100 persons with laboratory-confirmed Listeria have been interviewed to obtain detailed food histories. Outcome is known for 659/948 (70%) patients of whom 180 (27%) have died.

big-map-5-3-17Case Count: Connecticut (1), Florida (1), New York (5) and Vermont (1)

CDC collaborated with public health and regulatory officials in several states and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate a multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections (listeriosis). Listeria causes a serious, life-threatening illness.

Listeria specimens from ill people were collected from September 1, 2016 to March 13, 2017. Ill people ranged in age from less than one year to 89 years, with a median age of 52 years. Five of eight ill people were female. All eight (100%) ill people were hospitalized, including two people from Connecticut and Vermont who died. One of the illnesses was reported in a newborn.

Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence indicated that soft raw milk cheese made by Vulto Creamery of Walton, New York, was the likely source of this outbreak.

State and local health departments interviewed ill people or their family members about the foods they ate or other exposures in the month before their illness started. Based on those interviews, eight (100%) of eight people ate a soft cheese. The ill resident of Florida reported traveling to New York state and eating soft cheese there before becoming ill. Available information indicated that cheese made by Vulto Creamery was for sale at stores where at least seven of the ill people bought cheese before getting sick.

The Connecticut Department of Public Health collected leftover cheeses from the home of the deceased person in Connecticut. The outbreak strain of Listeria was identified in a leftover cheese that the family identified as Ouleout cheese from Vulto Creamery.

The New York Division of Milk Control and Dairy Services collected three intact wheels of Ouleout cheese from Vulto Creamery. The outbreak strain of Listeria was identified in samples taken from the three wheels of cheese. On March 7, 2017, Vulto Creamery recalled all lots of Ouleout, Miranda, Heinennellie, and Willowemoc soft wash-rind raw milk cheeses. On March 10, the company expanded the recall to include four other cheeses: Andes, Blue Blais, Hamden, and Walton Umber. The raw milk cheeses were distributed nationwide, with most sold in stores in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states; California; Chicago; Portland, Oregon; and Washington, D.C.

Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of Listeria outbreaks. The Listeria lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Listeria and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $600 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.  Our Listeria lawyers have litigated Listeria cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of foods, such as cantaloupe, cheese, celery and milk.

If you or a family member became ill with a Listeria infection after consuming food and you’re interested in pursuing a legal claim, contact the Marler Clark Listeria attorneys for a free case evaluation.

ouleout-cheese-unwrappedVulto Creamery faces lawsuit from the outbreak that originated from their New York facility.

Vermont resident Veronica Friedman, widow of Richard Friedman, has filed suit against Vulto Creamery of Walton, New York, after raw milk cheese tainted with Listeria hospitalized her husband and led to his death. Ms. Friedman is alleging wrongful death as well as emotional and financial damage. She is represented by food safety advocate William D. Marler, managing attorney at Marler Clark LLP, the Food Safety Law Firm, based in Seattle, along with Underberg & Kessler, LLP.  Final Friedman Complaint

The Friedmans purchased raw milk cheese that was manufactured by Vulto Creamery, cheese contaminated with Listeria, sometime in early October. Mr. Friedman’s symptoms began to take hold around October 11, 2016, when he went to the Emergency Room at Brattleboro Hospital. He was transferred to Dartmouth-Hitchcock medical center on October 12, where he stayed for a week and a half before being transferred to Mt. Ascutney Rehab in Windsor, Vermont. On October 31, at the rehab facility, Richard Friedman suffered a massive stroke, and was airlifted back to Dartmouth-Hitchcock where he died on November 2, 2016. The stroke was caused by the Listeriosis infection.

“People think of food poisoning as inconvenient rather than really dangerous,” said Bill Marler, attorney for the plaintiff and top food safety attorney. “But the reality is that what you eat can seriously damage or even kill you. Food providers have a responsibility to protect the lives of their customers, especially when producing raw milk products, which pose a higher risk to consumers.”

The CDC reports that six people infected with the outbreak strain of Listeria monocytogenes have been reported from Connecticut, Florida, New York and Vermont. Illnesses started on dates ranging from September 1, 2016, to January 22, 2017. All six people were hospitalized and two people died. Ill people ranged in age from less than one year to 89, with a median age of 55.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), along with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and state and local officials, has identified Ouleout cheese from Vulto Creamery of Walton, New York, as the likely source of an outbreak of listeriosis in six people from four states. Two of the six people have died.

The agencies have been investigating this outbreak since January 31, 2017. After gathering evidence about various cheeses eaten by the people who became ill, CDC identified Ouleout cheese from Vulto Creamery as the likely cause of the outbreak.

After being informed of a positive test conducted on a retail sample of Ouleout cheese by the FDA, Vulto Creamery began contacting its customers to return Ouleout cheese on March 3, 2017, and on March 7 announced a recall of its Ouleout cheese along with its Miranda, Heinennellie, and Willowemoc cheeses.

On March 8, 2017, FDA received positive test results from the New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets confirming samples of Ouleout cheese that matched the genetic fingerprint of Listeria monocytogenes in the outbreak.

Listeria causes an estimated 2,600 cases per year of the severe invasive illness called listeriosis. Unlike other pathogens, Listeria can multiply at refrigerator temperatures, which makes produce an ideal host for its spread and transference. Other foods commonly associated with Listeria outbreaks are improperly pasteurized dairy products, deli meats, and ready-to-eat, prepackaged foods.  Pregnant women, newborns, the elderly, and the immunocompromised are much more likely to become seriously ill when exposed to Listeria. Pregnant women are 20 times more likely than other healthy adults to get listeriosis; 22% of Listeria infections while pregnant result in stillbirth or neonatal death. Persons with AIDS are 300 times more likely to be diagnosed with listeriosis.

Symptoms of Listeria infection are sudden development of chills, severe headache, vomiting, and other flu-like symptoms. Most healthy adults and children who contract Listeria infection only experience mild to moderate symptoms.  Severe complications include blood infection, meningitis, and death. To learn more about Listeria, please visit http://www.about-listeria.com.

Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the nation’s leading law firm representing victims of food-borne illness outbreaks. The lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of foodborne illness infections and have recovered over $600 million for clients. Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation, and has litigated Listeria cases stemming from outbreaks traced to cheese, cantaloupe, pasteurized milk, and other food products.

What is Listeria?

Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) is a foodborne disease-causing bacteria; the disease is called listeriosis. Listeria can invade the body through a normal and intact gastrointestinal tract. Once in the body, Listeria can travel through the blood stream but the bacteria are often found inside cells. Listeria also produces toxins that damage cells. Listeria invades and grows best in the central nervous system among immune compromised persons, causing meningitis and/or encephalitis (brain infection). In pregnant women, the fetus can become infected, leading to spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, or sepsis (blood infection) in infancy.

Approximately 2,500 cases of listeriosis are estimated to occur in the U.S. each year. About 200 in every 1000 cases result in death. Certain groups of individuals are at greater risk for listeriosis, including pregnant women (and their unborn children) and immunocompromised persons. Among infants, listeriosis occurs when the infection is transmitted from the mother, either through the placenta or during the birthing process. These host factors, along with the amount of bacteria ingested and the virulence of the strain, determine the risk of disease. Human cases of listeriosis are, for the most part, sporadic and treatable. Nonetheless, Listeria remains an important threat to public health, especially among those most susceptible to this disease.

Listeria is often isolated in cattle, sheep, and fowl, and is also found in dairy products, fruits, and vegetables.

What are the Symptoms of Listeria Infection?

It is thought that ingestion of as few as 1,000 cells of Listeria bacteria can result in illness. After ingestion of food contaminated with Listeria, incubation periods (from time of exposure to onset of illness) are in the range of one to eight weeks, averaging about 31 days. Five days to three weeks after ingestion, Listeria has access to all body areas and may involve the central nervous system, heart, eyes, or other locations.

A person with listeriosis usually has fever, muscle aches, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea or diarrhea. If infection spreads to the nervous system, symptoms such as headache, stiff neck, loss of balance, confusion, obtundation (decreased consciousness) or convulsions can occur. With brain involvement, listeriosis may mimic a stroke. Infected pregnant women will ordinarily experience only a mild, flu-like illness; however, infection during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, infection of the newborn or even stillbirth. Pregnant women are about 20 times more likely than other healthy adults to get listeriosis; about one-third of listeriosis cases happen during pregnancy. The incidence of listeriosis in the newborn is 8.6 cases per 100,000 live births. The perinatal and neonatal mortality rate (stillbirths and early infant deaths) from listeriosis is 80%.

How to Diagnosis and Treat a Listeria Infection?

If you have symptoms of listeriosis, a health care provider can have a blood or spinal fluid test done to detect the infection. During pregnancy, a blood test is the most reliable way to find out if your symptoms are due to listeriosis. If you are in a high-risk group, have eaten the contaminated product, and within 2 months become ill with fever or signs of serious illness, you should contact your health care provider and inform him or her about this exposure. 

There are several antibiotics with which Listeria may be treated. When infection occurs during pregnancy, antibiotics given promptly to the pregnant woman can often prevent infection of the fetus. Babies with listeriosis receive the same antibiotics as adults, although a combination of antibiotics is often used until physicians are certain of the diagnosis.

How to Prevent a Listeria Infection?

General recommendations include: thoroughly cook raw food from animal sources; keep uncooked meats separate from vegetables and from cooked and ready-to-eat foods; avoid unpasteurized (raw) milk or foods made from unpasteurized milk; wash hands, knives, and cutting boards after handling uncooked foods; wash raw vegetables thoroughly before eating; and consume perishable and ready-to-eat foods as soon as possible.

Recommendations for persons at high risk, such as pregnant women and persons with weakened immune systems, in addition to the recommendations listed above, include: do not eat hot dogs, luncheon or deli meats, unless they are reheated until steaming hot, and wash hands after handling those products; do not eat soft cheeses (such as feta, Brie, Camembert, blue-veined, or Mexican-style cheese), unless they have labels that clearly state they are made from pasteurized milk; and do not eat meat spreads or smoked seafood from the refrigerated or deli section of the store (canned or shelf-stable products may be eaten).

An Introduction to Listeria

Listeria (pronounced liss-STEER-ē-uh) is a gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium that can grow under either anaerobic (without oxygen) or aerobic (with oxygen) conditions. [4, 18] Of the six species of Listeria, only L. monocytogenes (pronounced maw-NO-site-aw-JUH-neez) causes disease in humans. [18] These bacteria multiply best at 86-98.6 degrees F (30-37 degrees C), but also multiply better than all other bacteria at refrigerator temperatures, something that allows temperature to be used as a means of differentiating Listeria from other contaminating bacteria. [18] Called an “opportunistic pathogen,” Listeria is noted to cause an estimated 2,600 cases per year of severe invasive illness. [26] Perhaps not surprisingly then, “foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes has raised significant public health concern in the United States, Europe, and other areas of the world.” [3] As one noted expert observed, summarizing the history of these bacteria and their significance for public health:

Although L. monocytogenes was recognized as an animal pathogen over 80 years ago, the first outbreak confirming an indirect transmission from animals to humans was reported only in 1983, in Canada’s Maritime provinces. In that outbreak, cabbages, stored in the cold over the winter, were contaminated with Listeria through exposure to infected sheep manure. A subsequent outbreak in California in 1985 confirmed the role of food in disseminating listeriosis.

Since then Listeria has been implicated in many outbreaks of food-borne illness, most commonly from exposure to contaminated dairy products and prepared meat products, including turkey and deli meats, pâté, hot dogs and seafood and fish. [4] Given its widespread presence in the environment and food supply, the ingestion of Listeria has been described as an “exceedingly common occurrence.” [18]

The Incidence of Listeria Infection

Listeria bacteria are found widely in the environment in soil, including in decaying vegetation and water, and may be part of the fecal flora of a large number of mammals, including healthy human adults. [4, 18] According to the FDA, “studies suggest that 1-10% of humans may be intestinal carriers of Listeria.” [14] Another authority notes that the “organism has been isolated from the stool of approximately 5% of healthy adults.” [18] Overall, seasonal trends show a notable peak in total Listeria cases and related-deaths from July through October. [3] Ingested by mouth, Listeria is among the most virulent foodborne pathogens, with up to 20% of clinical infections resulting in death. [3] These bacteria primarily cause severe illness and death in persons with immature or compromised immune systems. [13, 18]

Consequently, most healthy adults can be exposed to Listeria with little to any risk of infection and illness. [4, 11] A study published in 1995 projected Listeria infection-rates to the U.S. population, suggesting that an estimated 1,965 cases and 481 deaths occurred in 1989 compared with an estimated 1,092 cases and 248 deaths in 1993, a 44% and 48% reduction in illness and death, respectively. [25] In comparison, a USDA study published in 1996 estimated that there had been 1,795-1860 Listeria-related cases in 1993, and 445-510 deaths, with 85-95% of these attributable to the consumption of contaminated food. [28] Listeriosis-related mortality rates decreased annually by 10.7% from 1990 through 1996, and by 4.3% from 1996 through 2005. [3]

Among adults 50 years of age and older, infection rates were estimated to have declined from 16.2 per 1 million in 1989 to 10.2 per 1 million in 1993. [25] Perinatal disease decreased from 17.4 cases per 100,000 births in 1989 to 8.6 cases per 100,000 births in 1993. [25] Neonatal infections are often severe, with a mortality rate of 25-50%. [4]

According to the CDC’s National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases:

Listeriosis was added to the list of nationally notifiable diseases in 2001. To improve surveillance, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists has recommended that all L. monocytogenes isolates be forwarded to state public health laboratories for subtyping through the National Molecular Subtyping Network for Foodborne Disease Surveillance (PulseNet). All states have regulations requiring health care providers to report cases of listeriosis and public health officials try to interview all persons with listeriosis promptly using a standard questionnaire about high risk foods. In addition, FoodNet conducts active laboratory- and population-based surveillance. [7]

In 2006, public health officials from 48 states reported 1,270 foodborne disease outbreaks, with a confirmed or suspect source in 884 of the outbreaks (70%). [8] Only one of the outbreaks with a confirmed source was attributed to Listeria, with this outbreak involving eleven hospitalizations and one death. [8] The next year, of 17,883 lab-confirmed infections, the CDC attributed 122 to Listeria. [9] In 2009, there were 158 confirmed Listeria infections, representing an incidence-rate of .34 cases for every 100,000 persons in the United States. [10] Such data revealed an incidence-rate of 0.27 cases per 100,000 persons, a decrease of 42% compared with 1996—1998. [10] But, according to CDC’s Technical Information website, it is estimated that there are 1,600 cases of Listeria infection annually in the United States, based on data through 2008. [7]

The 2009 numbers represented a reported 30% decrease in the number of infections compared to the 1996—1998 rates of infection. [10] Although the nature and degree of underreporting is subject to dispute, all agree that the confirmed cases represent just the tip of the iceberg. [6, 13] Indeed, one study estimates the annual incidence rate for Listeria to be around 1,795-1,860 cases per 100,000 persons, with 445-510 of the cases ending in death. [28]

Finally, in a study of FoodNet laboratory-confirmed invasive cases—where infection is detected in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid, placenta or products of conception—the number of listeriosis cases decreased by 24% from 1996 through 2003. [33] During this same period, pregnancy-associated disease decreased by 37%, while cases among those fifty years old and older decreased by 23%. [33]

The Prevalence of Listeria in Food and the Environment

Listeria is a common presence in nature, found widely in such places as water, soil, infected animals, human and animal feces, raw and treated sewage, leafy vegetables, effluent from poultry and meat processing facilities, decaying corn and soybeans, improperly fermented silage, and raw (unpasteurized) milk. [18, 23, 27] Foods commonly identified as sources of Listeria infection include  improperly pasteurized fluid milk, cheeses (particularly soft-ripened varieties, such as traditional Mexican cheeses, Camembert and ricotta), ice cream, raw vegetables, fermented raw-meat sausages, raw and cooked poultry, and cooked, ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced meats—often referred to as “deli meats”. [18, 21, 23, 28] One study found that, over a five-year period of testing, in multiple processing facilities, Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 14% of 1,080 samples of smoked finfish and smoked shellfish. [16]

Ready-to-eats foods have been found to be a notable and consistent source of Listeria. [14, 21] For example, a research-study done by the Listeria Study Group found that Listeria monocytogenes grew from at least one food specimen in the refrigerators of 64% of persons with a confirmed Listeria infection (79 of 123 patients), and in 11% of more than 2000 food specimens collected in the study. [21] Moreover, 33% of refrigerators (26 of 79) contained foods that grew the same strain with which the individual had been infected, a frequency much higher than would be expected by chance. [21] A widely cited USDA study that reviewed the available literature also summarized that:

In samples of uncooked meat and poultry from seven countries, up to 70 percent had detectable levels of Listeria [13].  Schuchat [23] found that 32 percent of the 165 culture-confirmed listeriosis cases could be attributed to eating food purchased from store delicatessen counters or soft cheeses.  In Pinner [21] microbiologic survey of refrigerated foods specimens obtained from households with listeriosis patients, 36 percent of the beef samples and 31 percent of the poultry samples were contaminated with Listeria.

The prevalence of Listeria in ready-to-eat meats has not proven difficult to explain. [26, 29] As one expert in another much-cited article has noted:

The centralized production of prepared ready-to-eat food products…increases the risk of higher levels of contamination, since it requires that foods be stored for long periods at refrigerated temperatures that favor the growth of Listeria. During the preparation, transportation and storage of prepared foods, the organism can multiply to reach a threshold needed to cause infection. [4]

The danger posed by the risk of Listeria in ready-to-eat meats has prompted the USDA to declare the bacterium an adulterant in these kinds of meat products and, as a result, to adopt a zero-tolerance policy for the presence of this deadly pathogen. [7, 29]

A USDA Baseline Data Collection Program done in 1994 documented Listeria contamination on 15.0% of broiler-chicken carcasses [30]. Subsequent USDA data-collection did not test for the prevalence of Listeria in chicken or in turkeys. [31, 32]

Transmission and Infection

Except for the transmission of mother to fetus, human-to-human transmission of Listeria is not known to occur. [18] Infection is caused almost exclusively by the ingestion of the bacteria, most often through the consumption of contaminated food. [18, 21, 23] The most widely-accepted estimate of foodborne transmission is 85-95% of all Listeria cases. [23, 28]

The infective dose—that is, the amount of bacteria that must be ingested to cause illness—is not known. [4, 18, 26] In an otherwise healthy person, an extremely large number of Listeria bacteria must be ingested to cause illness—estimated to be somewhere between 10–100 million viable bacteria (or colony forming units “CFU”) in healthy individuals, and only 0.1–10 million CFU in people at high risk of infection. [4, 18, 26] Even with such a dose, a healthy individual will suffer only a fever, diarrhea, and related gastrointestinal symptoms. [4, 18].

The amount of time from infection to the onset of symptoms—typically referred to as the incubation period—can vary to a significant degree.  Symptoms of Listeria infection can develop at any time from 2 to 70 days after eating contaminated food. [4, 5] According to one authoritative text:

The incubation period for invasive illness is not well established, but evidence from a few cases related to specific ingestions points to 11 to 70 days, with a mean of 31 days. In one report, two pregnant women whose only common exposure was attendance at a party developed Listeria bacteremia with the same uncommon enzyme type; incubation periods for illness were 19 and 23 days. [18]

Adults can get listeriosis by eating food contaminated with Listeria, but babies can be born with listeriosis if their mothers eat contaminated food during pregnancy. [4, 24] The mode of transmission of Listeria to the fetus is either transplacental via the maternal blood stream or ascending from a colonized genital tract. [24] Infections during pregnancy can cause premature delivery, miscarriage, stillbirth, or serious health problems for the newborn. [18, 24]

Incidence of Listeria infection in HIV-positive individuals is higher than in the general population. [17, 18] One study found that:

The estimated incidence of listeriosis among HIV-infected patients in metropolitan Atlanta was 52 cases per 100,000 patients per year, and among patients with AIDS it was 115 cases per 100,000 patients per year, rates 65–145 times higher than those among the general population. HIV-associated cases occurred in adults who were 29–62 years of age and in postnatal infants who were 2 and 6 months of age. [17]

Pregnant women make up around 30% of all infection cases, while accounting for 60% of cases involving the 10- to 40-year age group. [18]

Those Most Susceptible to Infection

Several segments of the population are at increased risk and need to be informed so that proper precautions can be taken. [19,20, 27] The body’s defense against Listeria is called “cell-mediated immunity” because the success of defending against infection depends on our cells (as opposed to our antibodies), especially lymphocytes called “T-cells.” [12] Therefore, individuals whose cell-mediated immunity is suppressed are more susceptible to the devastating effects of listeriosis, including especially HIV-infected individuals, who have been found to have a Listeria-related mortality of 29%. [12, 17, 18]

Pregnant women naturally have a depressed cell-mediated immune system. [18, 24] In addition, the immune systems of fetuses and newborns are very immature and are extremely susceptible to these types of infections. [24] Other adults, especially transplant recipients and lymphoma patients, are given necessary therapies with the specific intent of depressing T-cells, and these individuals become especially susceptible to Listeria as well. [7, 18, 27]

According to the CDC and other public health organizations, individuals at increased risk for being infected and becoming seriously ill with Listeria include the following groups:

  • Pregnant women: They are about 20 times more likely than other healthy adults to get listeriosis. About one-third of listeriosis cases happen during pregnancy.
  • Newborns: Newborns rather than the pregnant women themselves suffer the serious effects of infection in pregnancy.
  • Persons with weakened immune systems
  • Persons with cancer, diabetes, or kidney disease
  • Persons with AIDS: They are almost 300 times more likely to get listeriosis than people with normal immune systems.
  • Persons who take glucocorticosteroid medications (such as cortisone)
  • The elderly [11, 20, 21]

 Symptoms of Listeria infection

When a person is infected and develops symptoms of Listeria infection, the resulting illness is called listeriosis. [4, 11, 18] Only a small percentage of persons who ingest Listeria fall ill or develop symptoms. [18] For those who do develop symptoms as a result of their infection, the resulting illness is either mild or quite severe—sometimes referred to as a “bimodal distribution of severity.” [13, 28]

On the mild end of the spectrum, listeriosis usually consists of the sudden onset of fever, chills, severe headache, vomiting, and other influenza-type symptoms. [18, 28]  Along these same lines, the CDC notes that infected individuals may develop fever, muscle aches, and sometimes gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea or diarrhea. [11] When present, the diarrhea usually lasts 1-4 days (with 42 hours being average), with 12 bowel movements per day at its worst. [18]

Most healthy adults and children who consume contaminated food experience only mild to moderate symptoms. The infection is usually self-limited, since, in healthy hosts, exposure to Listeria stimulates the production of tumour necrosis factor and other cytokines, which activate monocytes and macrophages to eradicate the organism.  Few people with normal immune function go on to have more severe, life-threatening forms of listeriosis, characterized by septic shock, meningitis and encephalitis. [4]

As already noted, when pregnant, women have a mildly impaired immune system that makes them susceptible to Listeria infection. [19] If infected, the illness appears as an acute fever, muscle pain, backache, and headache. [18, 24] Illness usually occurs in the third trimester, which is when immunity is at its lowest. [18] Infection during pregnancy can lead to premature labor, miscarriage, infection of the newborn, or even stillbirth. [24, 28] Twenty-two percent of such infections result in stillbirth or neonatal death. [18]

Newborns may present clinically with early-onset (less than 7 days) or late-onset forms of infection (7 or more days). [3] Those with the early-onset form are often diagnosed in the first 24 hours of life with sepsis (infection in the blood). [3, 18] Early-onset listeriosis is most often acquired through trans-placental transmission. [18, 24] Late-onset neonatal listeriosis is less common than the early-onset form. [4, 18, 24] Clinical symptoms may be subtle and include irritability, fever and poor feeding. [24] The mode of acquisition of late-onset listeriosis is poorly understood. [18, 24]

Diagnosis and Treatment of Listeria Infections

Because there are few symptoms that are unique to listeriosis, doctors must consider a variety of potential causes for infection, including viral infections (like flu), and other bacterial infections that may cause sepsis or meningitis. [4, 18, 19]

Early diagnosis and treatment of listeriosis in high-risk patients is critical, since the outcome of untreated infection can be devastating. This is especially true for pregnant women because of the increased risk of spontaneous abortion and preterm delivery. Depending on the risk group, rates of death from listeriosis range from 10% to 50%, with the highest rate among newborns in the first week of life. [4]

Methods typically used to identify diarrhea-causing bacteria in stool cultures interfere or limit the growth of Listeria, making it less likely to be identified and isolated for further testing. [18] On the other hand, routine methods are effective for isolating Listeria from spinal fluid, blood, and joint fluid. [4, 18] Magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) is used to confirm or rule out brain or brain stem involvement. [18]

Listeriosis is usually a self-limited illness—which means that a majority of infected individuals will improve without the need for medical care. [4, 11, 14, 18] But for those patients with a high fever, a stool culture and antibiotic-treatment may be justified for otherwise healthy individuals. [4, 18] Although there have been no studies done to determine what drugs or treatment duration is best, ampicillin is generally considered the “preferred agent.” [18] There is no consensus on the best approach for patients who are allergic to penicillins. [18]

Invasive infections with Listeria can be treated with antibiotics. [18] When infection occurs during pregnancy, antibiotics given promptly to the pregnant woman can often prevent infection of the fetus or newborn. [18, 24] Babies with listeriosis receive the same antibiotics as adults, although a combination of antibiotics is often used until physicians are certain of the diagnosis.

Complications of Listeria infection

For those persons who suffer a Listeria infection that does not resolve on its own, the complications (or sequelae) can be many. [4, 28] The most common is septicemia (bacterial pathogens in the blood, also known as bacteremia), with meningitis being the second most common. [4, 18] Other complications can include inflammation of the brain or brain stem (encephalitis), brain abscess, inflammation of the heart-membrane (endocarditis), and localized infection, either internally or of the skin. [18]

Death is the most severe consequence of listeriosis, and it is tragically common. [3] For example, based on 2009 FoodNet surveillance data, 89.2% of Listeria patients ended up in the hospital, the highest hospitalization rate for pathogenic bacterial infection. [10] In persons 50 years of age and older, there was a 17.5% fatality rate—also the highest relative to other pathogens. [10, 18]

The Economic Impact of Listeria Infections

The USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) published its first comprehensive cost estimates for sixteen foodborne bacterial pathogens in 1989. [22] Five years later, it was estimated that, in 1993, there were 1,795 to 1,860 Listeria infections that required hospitalization, with 295-360 of these cases involving pregnant women. [28] Based on these estimates, the medical costs that Listeria infections had caused each year were said to run from $61.7 to $64.8 million, including those individuals who ultimately died as a result of their infections. [28] For these same acute cases, productivity costs were estimated to run from $125.8 to $154.4 million a year. [28] The productivity costs associated with Listeria-related chronic illness was estimated to be an additional $38 million a year. [28] In sum, “[e]stimates of total costs for the 1,795 to 1,860 cases of listeriosis range from $232.7 million to $264.4 million annually.” [28]

In 2000, USDA updated the cost-estimates for four pathogens:  Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. [28] The 2000 estimates were based on the CDC’s then newly-released estimates of annual foodborne illnesses, and put the total cost in the United States for these four pathogens at $6.5 billion a year. [28a] For Listeria specifically, it was estimated that costs amounted to $2.3 billion per year, based on 2,493 cases, which involved 2,298 hospitalizations and 499 deaths. [28] More recently, in 2007, it was estimated that the worldwide cost of all foodborne disease was $1.4 trillion per year. [6]

Real Life Impacts of Listeria Infection

Because Listeria infection is most severe in elderly persons, pregnant women and newborns, the symptoms of infection vary greatly:

  • In older adults or immunocompromised individuals, septicemia (Listeria bacteria in the blood stream) and meningitis are the most common indicators of illness.
  • In pregnant women, a mild, flu-like illness can be followed by miscarriage, premature delivery or stillbirth.
  • In newborns, bacteremia (Listeria bacteria in the blood stream) and meningitis are the most common indicators of Listeria infection.

 Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria

Antimicrobial resistance in bacteria is an emerging and increasing threat to human health. [1, 4] Physicians are increasingly aware that antimicrobial resistance is increasing in foodborne pathogens and that, as a result, patients who are prescribed antibiotics are at increased risk for acquiring antimicrobial-resistant foodborne infections. [1] Indeed, “increased frequency of treatment failures for acute illness and increased severity of infection may be manifested by prolonged duration of illness, increased frequency of bloodstream infections, increased hospitalization or increased mortality.” [3]

The use of antimicrobial agents in the feed of food animals is estimated by the FDA to be over 100 million pounds per year. [4] It is estimated that 36% to 70% of all antibiotics produced in the United States are used in a food animal feed or in prophylactic treatment to prevent animal disease. [3, 4, 18] In 2002, the Minnesota Medical Association published an article by David Wallinga, M.D., M.P.H. who wrote:

According to the [Union of Concerned Scientists], 70 percent of all the antimicrobials used in the United States for all purposes—or about 24.6 million pounds annually—are fed to poultry, swine, and beef cattle for nontherapeutic purposes, in the absence of disease. Over half are “medically important” antimicrobials; identical or so closely related to human medicines that resistance to the animal drug can confer resistance to the similar human drug. Penicillin, tetracycline, macrolides, streptogramins, and sulfonamides are prominent examples. [33]

The use of antibiotics in feed for food animals, on animals prophylactically to prevent disease, and the use of antibiotics in humans unnecessarily must be reduced. [1, 25] European countries have reduced the use of antibiotics in animal feed and have seen a corresponding reduction in antibiotic-resistant illnesses in humans. [1, 4]

The Prevention of Listeria infection

Given its widespread presence in the environment, and the fact that the vast majority of Listeria infections are the result of consuming contaminated food or water, preventing illness and death is necessarily (and understandably) a food safety issue.

Listeria monocytogenes presents a particular concern with respect to food handling because it can grow at refrigerator temperatures (4°C to 10°C), temperatures commonly used to control pathogens in foods. Freezing also has little detrimental effect on the microbe. Although pasteurization is sufficient to kill Listeria, failure to reach the desired temperature in large packages can allow the organism to survive. Food can also be contaminated after processing by the introduction of unpasteurized material, as happens during the preparation of some cheeses. Listeria can also be spread by contact with contaminated hands, equipment and counter tops. [4]

The use of irradiation to reduce Listeria to safe levels in foods has many proponents. [26] As noted by an eminent CDC researcher, Robert V. Tauxe:

Ready-to-eat meats, such as hot dogs, have already been subjected to a pathogen-killing step when the meat is cooked at the factory, so contamination is typically the result of in-plant contamination after that step. Improved sanitation in many plants has reduced the incidence of infection by half since 1986, but the risk persists, as illustrated by a large hot dog-associated outbreak that occurred in 1999. Additional heat treatment or irradiation of meat after it is packaged would eliminate Listeria that might be present at that point. [26]

The CDC provides a comprehensive list of recommendations and precautions to avoid becoming infected with Listeria, which are as follows:

  • Thoroughly cook raw food from animal sources, such as beef, pork, or poultry to a safe internal temperature. For a list of recommended temperatures for meat and poultry, visit http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/IsItDoneYet_Magnet.pdf.
  • Rinse raw vegetables thoroughly under running tap water before eating.
  • Keep uncooked meats and poultry separate from vegetables and from cooked foods and ready-to-eat foods.
  • Do not drink raw (unpasteurized) milk, and do not eat foods that have unpasteurized milk in them.
  • Wash hands, knives, countertops, and cutting boards after handling and preparing uncooked foods.
  • Consume perishable and ready-to-eat foods as soon as possible.

Recommendations for persons at high risk, such as pregnant women and persons with weakened immune systems, in addition to the recommendations listed above, include:

  • Meats
  • Do not eat hot dogs, luncheon meats, cold cuts, other deli meats (e.g., bologna), or fermented or dry sausages unless they are heated to an internal temperature of 165°F or until steaming hot just before serving.
  • Avoid getting fluid from hot dog and lunch meat packages on other foods, utensils, and food preparation surfaces, and wash hands after handling hot dogs, luncheon meats, and deli meats.
  • Do not eat refrigerated pâté or meat spreads from a deli or meat counter or from the refrigerated section of a store. Foods that do not need refrigeration, like canned or shelf-stable pâté and meat spreads, are safe to eat. Refrigerate after opening.
  • Cheeses
  • Do not eat soft cheese such as feta, queso blanco, queso fresco, brie, Camembert, blue-veined, or panela (queso panela) unless it is labeled as made with pasteurized milk. Make sure the label says, “MADE WITH PASTEURIZED MILK.”
  • Seafood
  • Do not eat refrigerated smoked seafood, unless it is contained in a cooked dish, such as a casserole, or unless it is a canned or shelf-stable product. Refrigerated smoked seafood, such as salmon, trout, whitefish, cod, tuna, and mackerel, is most often labeled as “nova-style,” “lox,” “kippered,” “smoked,” or “jerky.” These fish are typically found in the refrigerator section or sold at seafood and deli counters of grocery stores and delicatessens. Canned and shelf stable tuna, salmon, and other fish products are safe to eat.

Recommendations to keep food safe:

  • Be aware that Listeria monocytogenes can grow in foods in the refrigerator. Use an appliance thermometer, such as a refrigerator thermometer, to check the temperature inside your refrigerator. The refrigerator should be 40°F or lower and the freezer 0°F or lower.
  • Clean up all spills in your refrigerator right away–especially juices from hot dog and lunch meat packages, raw meat, and raw poultry.
  • Clean the inside walls and shelves of your refrigerator with hot water and liquid soap, then rinse.
  • Divide leftovers into shallow containers to promote rapid, even cooling. Cover with airtight lids or enclose in plastic wrap or aluminum foil. Use leftovers within 3 to 4 days.
  • Use precooked or ready-to-eat food as soon as you can. Do not store the product in the refrigerator beyond the use-by date; follow USDA refrigerator storage time guidelines:
  • Hot Dogs – store opened packages no longer than 1 week and unopened packages no longer than 2 weeks in the refrigerator.
  • Luncheon and Deli Meat – store factory-sealed, unopened packages no longer than 2 weeks. Store opened packages and meat sliced at a local deli no longer than 3 to 5 days in the refrigerator. [11]

Additional preventive steps and precautions can be found on the websites of most State Departments of Health, including, for example, the Minnesota Department of Health. [20] There is also excellent information to be found at the Extension Service website of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences at University of Florida. [27]

References Continue Reading What We All Need To Know About Deadly Listeria During An Outbreak Or Recall

Yes it does, but more on the history of Listeria in cheese below.  Forever Cheese inc. is recalling all Ricotta Salata Frescolina brand, Forever Cheese lot # T9425 and/or production code 441202, from one specific production date due to contamination by Listeria monocytogenes.  The cheese was sold to distributors for retailers and restaurants in CA, CO, D.C., FL, GA, IL, IN, MA, MD, ME, MT, NJ, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, VA, WA between June 20 and August 9, 2012. Products were sold to supermarkets, restaurants and wholesale distributors.

Because we’ve represented so many victims of foodborne disease against the dairy industry generally, we’ve amassed lots of data.  The following is just Listeria outbreaks; in other words, leaving out the outbreaks linked to E. coli, Salmonella, and other bugs.

El Ranchero Del Sur Los Corrales Queso Fresco Fresh Cheese and Banana Leaf 2012: On March 2, 2012, a 38-week pregnant woman, in New Jersey, was diagnosed with Listeria monocytogenes. Subsequent investigation and product analysis implicated, and then confirmed, the presence of L. monocytogenes in a sample of Los Corrales Queso Fre…Read More »

Green Cedar Dairy – Harb, Inc. Natural Ackawi and Chives Cheese 2011 On December 27, the Michigan Department of Agriculture announced the recall of All Natural Ackawi and Chive Cheeses produced by the Green Cedar Dairy – Harb, Inc., of Dearborn, Michigan. The recalled product is sold in approximately 12-14 oz. squares…Read More »

Clic Cheese or Butter 2011 One person became ill due to Listeria monocytogenes after eating a Clic brand cheese, or butter, in Canada. A recall for Clic dairy products was issued on November 11. However, during a review of the company’s voluntary recall it was discovered th…Read More »

Queseria Bendita Fresh Cheese 2010 Two Oregon mothers, their prematurely born infants, and a pregnant woman residing in Washington state, were hospitalized after eating cheeses produced by Queseria Bendita, a Yakima, Washington, business. At least one of the illnesses was laboratory …Read More »

Washington State Private Home Cheese 2009 A confirmed outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes occurred among people who had eaten cheese in a private home. There was no description as to whether the cheese had been made with pasteurized or unpasteurized milk.…Read More »

Multistate Mexican Style Cheese 2009 A confirmed, multistate, outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes was associated with eating Mexican style cheese. The cheese was consumed in private homes. The states involved in this outbreak were not named. It was not stated whether the cheese had be…Read More »

Prolactal Cheese 2009 Austria’s health ministry said contaminated cheese produced by Prolactal killed seven people in 2009. The ministry said the deaths – five in Austria and two in Germany – were caused by listeria, an organism that can cause serious and sometimes fata…Read More »

Multistate Torres Hillsdale Private Home Mexican Style, Pasteurized, Asadero Cheese 2008 A multistate outbreak of listeriosis occurred among pregnant, Hispanic women. Eight cases in five states were identified. Seven of the cases were pregnant, Hispanic females aged 21 to 43 years, and one was a 3-year-old Hispanic girl. Seven (100%) c…Read More »

Quebec Pasteurized Cheese 2008 A major Listeria monocytogenes outbreak occurred in the province of Quebec, Canada, in 2008, involving a strain of L. monocytogenes (LM P93)characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and associated with the consumption of pasteurized mi…Read More »

Oregon Grocery Store or Private Home Pasteurized Cheese 2006 A confirmed outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes was linked to eating pasteurized cheese in a grocery store or in a private home in Oregon.…Read More »

North Carolina Queso Fresco 2000 Health care workers in Winston-Salem noted a cluster of listeriosis cases during early November; three cases in two weeks. The resulting investigation found a total of twelve cases. All were Hispanic. Ten of the cases were pregnant, one was five m…Read More »

North Carolina Homemade Mexican Cheese 2000 Twelve persons (eleven women; one immunocompromised man), all of Hispanic origen, developed infections caused by Listeria monocytogenes. Ten women were pregnant; these infections resulted in five stillbirths, three premature deliveries, and two infec…Read More »

Mexican-Style Cheese Queso Fresco 2000 An outbreak of Listeriosis occurred Winston-Salem, North Carolina. It was attributed to the consumption of a fresh, Mexican-style cheese that was sold door-to-door. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 10 case-patients, from cheese bought from …Read More »

Jalisco Products, Inc., Queso Fresco and Cotija Cheeses 1985 Between January 1 and August 15, 1985, 142 cases of listeriosis were identified in Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. Ninety three cases (65.5%) occurred in pregnant women or their offspring and 49 (34.5%) in nonpregnant adults. There wer…Read More »