Sprouts . . . nutritionally dense, next to irresistable on sub sandwiches, and an exceptional medium for the proliferation of dangerous bacteria. Sprouts have been called one of the ten riskiest foods. They have been estimated to have caused 40% of foodborne illness outbreaks linked to fresh produce. And now they are implicated in a major salmonella outbreak linked to Jimmy John’s sandwiches in Illinois. Why? Unlike other fresh produce, seeds need warm and humid conditions to sprout and grow . . . conditions that are also ideal for the growth of bacteria, including Salmonella, Listeria, and E. coli.
In 1999, the FDA issued guidance documents to the sprout industry. The principles are non-binding:
All parties involved in the production of sprouts — seed producers, seed conditioners, and distributors, and sprout producers — should be aware that seeds and sprouted seeds have been recognized as an important cause of foodborne illness. The following recommendations identify the preventive controls that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) believes should be taken immediately to reduce the risk of raw sprouts serving as a vehicle for foodborne illness and ensure sprouts are not adulterated under the food safety provisions of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act). Failure to adopt effective preventive controls can be considered insanitary conditions which may render food injurious to health. Food produced under such conditions is adulterated under the act (21 U.S.C. 342(a)(4)). FDA will consider enforcement actions against any party who does not have effective preventive controls in place, in particular, microbial testing.
These recommendations are based on the recommendations of the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods (NACMCF, 1999) and elaborate on Compliance Policy Guide 7120.28 (CPG 7120.28).
Seed Production: Seeds for sprout production should be grown under good agricultural practices (GAPs) in order to minimize the likelihood that they will contain pathogenic bacteria. For more information on GAPs, see FDA’s 1998 "Guidance for Industry: Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables". Copies of this guidance are available on the internet (http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/prodguid.html) or by calling the number listed in the references and resources at the end of this guidance.
Seed Conditioning, Storage, and Transportation: Seeds that may be used for sprouting should be conditioned, stored, and transported in a manner that minimizes the likelihood that the seeds will be contaminated with pathogens. For example, seed should be stored in closed or covered containers in a clean dry area dedicated to seed storage. Containers should be positioned off the floor and away from walls to reduce the possibility of contamination by rodents or other pests and to facilitate regular monitoring for pest problems.
Sprout Production: Sprouters should implement appropriate practices to ensure that sprouts are not produced in violation of the act which prohibits the production of food under insanitary conditions which may render food injurious to health (21 U.S.C. 342(a)(4)). In addition to seed treatment and testing for pathogens (see below), sprouters should maintain facilities and equipment in a condition that will protect against contamination. Facilities with poor sanitation can significantly increase the risk of contaminating product. Sprouters should employ good sanitation practices as a standard operating procedure to maintain control throughout all stages of sprout production. Inadequate water quality and poor health and hygienic practices can all increase the risk of food becoming contaminated with pathogens. Sprouters may wish to review 21 CFR Part 110 which sets forth good manufacturing practices (GMPs) in manufacturing, packaging, or holding human food that cover these aspects of food production.
Seed Treatment: Seeds for sprouting should be treated with one or more treatments (such as 20,000 ppm calcium hypochlorite(2)) that have been approved for reduction of pathogens in seeds or sprouts. Some treatments can be applied at the sprouting facility while others will have to be applied earlier in the seed production process. However, at least one approved antimicrobial treatment should be applied immediately before sprouting(3) . Sprouters should carefully follow all label directions when mixing and using antimicrobial chemicals.
Testing for Pathogens: Because currently approved antimicrobials have not been shown to be capable of eliminating all pathogens from seed, sprout producers should conduct microbiological testing of spent irrigation water from each production lot to ensure that contaminated product is not distributed. Because testing for pathogens can be done with irrigation water as early as 48 hours into what is generally a 3 to 10 day growing period, producers who plan accordingly can obtain test results before shipping product without losing product shelf-life. Testing, whether done by the producer or contracted out, should be done by trained personnel, in a qualified laboratory, using validated methods. Additional information on sample collection and microbial testing, including how to sample and test sprouts when testing spent irrigation water is not practicable (as may be the case with soil-grown sprouts), can be found in a companion guidance document referenced below.
Traceback: Traceback cannot prevent a foodborne illness outbreak from occurring. However, being able to trace a food back to it’s source quickly can limit the public health and economic impacts of an outbreak, if it occurs. Information gained in traceback investigations may also help prevent future outbreaks. Sprout producers, seed producers, conditioners and distributors should develop and implement systems to facilitate traceback and recalls in the event of a problem. All parties should test their systems in advance of a real problem.