Radagast Pet Food, Inc. of Portland, OR is recalling one lot of Free-Range Chicken and one lot of Free-Range Turkey Recipe because they have the potential to be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. Listeria monocytogenes can affect animals eating the products and there is risk to humans from handling contaminated pet products, especially if they have not thoroughly washed their hands after having contact with the products or any surfaces exposed to these products.

This recall includes only the two lots listed below.

Listeria monocytogenes is pathogenic to humans. Healthy people exposed to Listeria monocytogenes should monitor themselves for some or all of the following symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramping, fever. Consumers exhibiting these signs after having contact with this product should contact their healthcare providers.

Listeria monocytogenes can affect animals eating the product. Animals exposed to Listeria monocytogenes can display symptoms such as: diarrhea, fever, muscular or respiratory signs and anorexia. If your pet has consumed the recalled product and has these symptoms, please contact your veterinarian.

No pet or human illnesses have been reported.

The single lot of Rad Cat Raw Diet Free-Range Chicken Lot 62762, BB Date: 10/19/18, was shipped to distributors in May 2017 in CA, MN, OH, OR, PA, and RI. Product has the following UPC’s:

8oz  UPC 8 51536 00103 6
16oz UPC 8 51536 00104 3
24oz UPC 8 51536 00105 0

The single lot of Rad Cat Raw Diet Free-Range Turkey Recipe, Lot 62926, BB Date: 05/03/19, was shipped in December 2017 in CA, CO, FL, GA, NY, OH, OR, RI, TX, and WA and sold through independent pet retail stores. Product has the following UPC’s:

8oz  UPC 8 51536 00100 5
16oz UPC 8 51536 00101 2
24oz UPC 8 51536 00102 9

Food safety attorney William (Bill) Marler is available to consult those affected by the ongoing Listeria outbreak in the European Union. EFSA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) announced today that frozen corn is the likely source of the Listeria outbreak affecting Austria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. As of March 8, 2018, there have been 32 confirmed cases and 6 deaths.

The implicated frozen corn was packed in Poland and processed and produced in Hungary. The products have been withdrawn and recalled by food operators in Poland, Finland, Sweden, and Estonia.

Bill Marler is the United States’ leading expert in food safety litigation and a major force in food policy in the U.S.A. and around the world. Bill recently returned from South Africa where he is consulting on a historic class action lawsuit against Tiger Brands for causing the largest Listeria outbreak with almost 1,000 ill with 200 deaths.  Bill was interviewed today for the BBC show “The Food Chain” about the ongoing problem with processed foods and Listeria.

“Listeria is one of the most deadly foodborne pathogens whether it be in the U.S.A., South Africa or in the European Union,” said Bill Marler.  “It is critical for the food industry to combat this menace or ready to eat foods, like frozen corn and deli meats,” added Marler.

Listeria is a serious foodborne illness that once in the blood stream can cause meningitis and/or encephalitis (brain infection). In pregnant women, the fetus can become infected with Listeria, leading to spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, or sepsis in infancy. Listeria has an approximate 20% mortality rate. For victims who survive they may be left with life-altering damage.

An accomplished attorney and national expert in food safety, Bill Marler has become the most prominent foodborne illness lawyer in America and a major force in food policy in the U.S.A. and around the world.  Bill will be speaking in Italy, Spain and England this year on food safety topics.

Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the United States’ leading law firm representing victims of Listeria outbreaks. The Listeria lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Listeria and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $650 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.  Marler Clark has litigated Listeria cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of foods, such as deli meat, cantaloupe, cheese, celery and milk.

  • About-Listeria.comis a comprehensive site with in-depth information about Listeria bacteria and listeriosis.
  • Listeria Blogprovides up-to-date news related to Listeria outbreaks, research, and more.
  • Listeria Information VideoYouTube video outlining what you need to know during a Listeria outbreak.

The Oregon Food Bank is recalling more than 60,000 pounds of donated pumpkin seeds because they could be contaminated with Listeria.

Earlier this week, the food bank recalled donated chia seeds that may have included rodent droppings. The chia seeds and pumpkin seeds were given to the food bank on the same donation.

No illnesses have been reported by either foods, but food bank officials say they found rodent droppings in chia seed donations still at their warehouse.

The pumpkin seeds were distributed in Oregon and Clark County, Wash. as well as area food banks and food pantries. They were distributed in 1-pound plastic poly film bags with a twist-type closure OR a Kale Joy plastic bag. They were distributed between Nov. 1, 2017 and March 16, 2018.

Oregon Food Bank has initiated a Class II recall of 22,201 pounds of chia seeds, which were donated to the food bank based in Portland. The product may be contaminated with rodent droppings. While no known illnesses have been associated with this product, use or consumption may present a health hazard to consumers.

The chia seeds were distributed in Oregon and Clark County, Washington through the Oregon Food Bank Network of regional food banks and participating food pantries. The product was distributed in one-pound plastic poly film bags with a twist-type closure or a re-sealable pouch. All chia seeds distributed in the described packaging between November 1, 2017 and March 9, 2018 are included. See attached product labels for ease of identification.

SEATTLE, WASHINGTON, USA—Food Safety Attorney Bill Marler is available to consult with those affected by the ongoing Listeria outbreak in Australia. The New South Wales (NSW) Food Authority announced on Tuesday that it is working with Rambola Family Farms to pinpoint the source of the deadly outbreak linked to rockmelons. Rambola Family Farms is located in the Riverina agricultural region of Southwestern NSW and boasts to be “one of the biggest melon growers in Australia!” To date, there have been 17 confirmed cases and 5 deaths, two in NSW and three in Victoria.

In 2011, the United States experienced the largest Listeria outbreak in its history that was linked to rockmelons grown by Jensen Farms in Colorado. In total there were 147 cases with 33 deaths across 28 states. Marler Clark represented 30 of the families of the dead and dozens of others affected in the outbreak.

Bill Marler is the United States’ leading expert in food safety litigation and a major force in food policy in the U.S.A. and around the world. Bill recently returned from South Africa where he is consulting on a historic class action lawsuit against Tiger Brands for causing the largest Listeria outbreak with almost 1,000 ill with 200 deaths.

“Listeria is one of the most deadly foodborne pathogens whether it be in the U.S.A., South Africa or in Australia,” said Bill Marler.  “It is critical for the food industry to combat this menace or ready to eat foods, like rockmelons and deli meats,” added Marler.

Listeria is a serious foodborne illness that once in the blood stream can cause meningitis and/or encephalitis (brain infection). In pregnant women, the fetus can become infected with Listeria, leading to spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, or sepsis in infancy. Listeria has an approximate 20% mortality rate. For victims who survive they may be left with life-altering damage.

Marler Clark has dealt with rockmelon/cantaloupe foodborne illness outbreaks numerous times. Outside of Listeria, the law firm has represented individuals in 8 separate Salmonella outbreaks linked to rockmelon/cantaloupe from 2000-2012. Cantaloupe is easily contaminated with foodborne pathogens due to it’s rough skin that can trap and hold bacteria that go on to penetrate the inside of the melon.

An accomplished attorney and national expert in food safety, William (Bill) Marler has become the most prominent foodborne illness lawyer in America and a major force in food policy in the U.S.A. and around the world.

Marler Clark, The Food Safety Law Firm, is the United States’ leading law firm representing victims of Listeria outbreaks. The Listeria lawyers of Marler Clark have represented thousands of victims of Listeria and other foodborne illness outbreaks and have recovered over $650 million for clients.  Marler Clark is the only law firm in the nation with a practice focused exclusively on foodborne illness litigation.  Marler Clark has litigated Listeria cases stemming from outbreaks traced to a variety of foods, such as deli meat, cantaloupe, cheese, celery and milk.

Incubation Period

Although incubation periods—the time between ingestion of a foodborne pathogen and the onset of symptoms—are only ranges, and wide ones at that, they can still be used to identify a suspect food poisoning claim.  For example, the claimant who insists that an E. coli O157:H7 illness was sparked by the hamburger eaten an hour before the onset of illness does not have a viable case. The incubation period of E. coli O157:H7 is one to ten days, typically two to five days.

Incubation Periods of Common Foodborne Pathogens

Staphylococcus aureus 1 to 8 hours, typically 2 to 4 hours.
Campylobacter 2 to 7 days, typically 3 to 5 days.
E. coli O157:H7 1 to 10 days, typically 2 to 5 days.
Salmonella 6 to 72 hours, typically 18-36 hours.
Shigella 12 hours to 7 days, typically 1-3 days.
Hepatitis A 15 to 50 days, typically 25-30 days.
Listeria 3 to 70 days, typically 21 days.
Norovirus 24 to 72 hours, typically 36 hours.

So, if you suffer from a foodborne illness, it is not usually the last meal you ate.  Also, a stool culture for the above – except Listeria and Hepatitis A – which need blood tests – is the best way to definitively determine what “bug” has made you ill.

If you test positive in either stool or blood for one of the above bacteria or viruses, the doctor, lab or hospital is required to alert the local and state health departments, and they are obligated to interview you about the possible source of your illness.

The FDA has investigated six complaints of illness and death in animals that have eaten the recalled products.

The FDA is alerting pet owners to a history of four recalls of and multiple complaints associated with Darwin’s Natural and ZooLogics pet foods, manufactured by Arrow Reliance Inc., dba Darwin’s Natural Pet Products, over the period from October 17, 2016 to February 10, 2018. In each instance, the company recalled these products after being alerted to positive findings of Salmonella and/or Listeria monocytogenes in samples of their raw pet food products.

In its most recent recall, on February 10, 2018, Arrow Reliance/Darwin’s Natural recalled ZooLogics Duck with Vegetable Meals for Dogs (Lot #41957) and ZooLogics Chicken with Vegetable Meals for Dogs (Lot #41567) because the products may be contaminated with Salmonella and therefore have the potential to cause salmonellosis in humans and animals. The company states that it only sells its products online through direct-to-consumer sales.

Arrow Reliance/Darwin’s Natural has notified its customers directly of the recalls but has so far not issued any public notification announcing this or any of the previous recalls.

This issue is of particular public health importance because Salmonella can make both people and animals sick.

As part of an ongoing investigation into complaints associated with products manufactured by Arrow Reliance/Darwin’s Natural of Tukwila, WA, the FDA has confirmed that new samples of Darwin’s Natural Pet Products raw pet foods have tested positive for Salmonella. These raw pet foods include ZooLogics Duck with Vegetable Meals for Dogs Lot #41957 and ZooLogics Chicken with Vegetable Meals for Dogs Lot #41567.

The latest recall was triggered by a complaint of an adult dog that had recurring diarrhea over a nine-month period. The dog tested positive for Salmonella from initial testing by the veterinarian and by follow-up testing by the FDA’s Veterinary Laboratory Investigation and Response Network (Vet-LIRN). The Darwin’s Natural raw pet food that the dog had been fed was also positive for Salmonella.

Arrow Reliance/Darwin’s Natural is aware of the dog’s illness and the positive results and initiated a recall on February 10, 2018 by directly notifying its customers via email. The firm has not issued a public recall notice.

Since October 2016, Arrow Reliance/Darwin’s Natural has initiated four recalls and had six reported complaints (some referring to more than one animal) associated with their raw pet food products, including the death of one kitten from a severe systemic Salmonella infection. The Salmonella isolated from the kitten was analyzed using whole genome sequencing and found to be indistinguishable from the Salmonella isolated from a closed package from the same lot of Darwin’s Natural cat food that the kitten ate.

In addition to reports of illnesses associated with Salmonella contamination in the products, the FDA is aware of complaints of at least three animals who were reportedly injured by bone shards in the Darwin’s Natural raw pet food products.

Since 2016, Arrow Reliance/Darwin’s Natural has recalled the following raw pet food products:

The recalled lot codes and the manufacturing dates are printed directly on the flexible film packages.

Arrow Reliance/Darwin’s Natural initiated each recall of the product lots by notifying customers directly via email. The company states that the raw pet foods are only sold online through direct-to-consumer sales.

This contaminated raw pet food is of particular public health importance because of the potential hazard to both human and animal health. Pets can get sick from Salmonella but may also be carriers of the bacteria and can infect humans. Pets do not have to be apparently ill to be able to pass Salmonella onto their human companions.

The FDA has a zero-tolerance policy for Salmonella or other pathogenic bacteria in all pet food, meaning the agency will take action, as appropriate, against any pet food found to be contaminated with the harmful bacteria.

Jimmy Johns Sprouts Salmonella Outbreak

As of January 18, 2018, eight people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Montevideo have been reported from Wisconsin, Minnesota and Illinois. Illnesses started on dates ranging from December 20, 2017 to January 3, 2018. Ill people range in age from 26 to 50 All 8 are female. No hospitalizations and no deaths have been reported.

Epidemiologic evidence indicates that raw sprouts served at Jimmy John’s restaurants are the likely source of this multistate outbreak.

Federal, state, and local health and regulatory officials are conducting traceback investigations from the six Jimmy John’s locations where ill people ate raw sprouts. These investigations are ongoing to determine where the sprouts were distributed, and to learn more about the potential route of contamination.

CDC recommends that consumers not eat raw sprouts served at Jimmy John’s restaurants. Regardless of where they are served, raw and lightly cooked sprouts are a known source of foodborne illness. People who choose to eat sprouts should cook them thoroughly to reduce the risk of illness.

El Toro Norovirus Outbreak

The Tacoma/Pierce County Department of Health updated the El Toro Norovirus outbreak to a total of 542 cases—520 from the Tacoma location and 22 suspect cases from the University Place location.

According to the department, Norovirus outbreaks can last a few days, a few weeks, or a few months. It is highly contagious. Norovirus outbreaks typically have greater numbers of cases than other types of outbreaks because of the low number of virus particles needed to cause infection and the rapid person-to-person transmission.

In the case of the El Toro Restaurants, both received 65 critical points—not a passing score—during their last routine inspections.

On Jan. 1, the state’s new Paid Sick Leave Law took effect. The law requires employers provide their employees with paid time off to take care of their health.

Frozen Coconut Salmonella Outbreak

As of January 12, 2018, 25 people were reported infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella from California, Colorado, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, and Washington. One more ill person infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella has been reported from Canada. Illnesses started on dates ranging from May 11, 2017 to November 4, 2017. Ill people range in age from 1 year to 82. Six people have been hospitalized. No deaths have been reported.

Epidemiologic, laboratory, and traceback evidence indicates that Coconut Tree Brand frozen Shredded Coconut is the likely source of this multistate outbreak.

The frozen shredded coconut linked to this outbreak was used as an ingredient in Asian-style dessert drinks served at restaurants. The product was also sold in grocery stores and markets in several states. Frozen shredded coconut can last for several months if kept frozen and may still be in retail stores or in people’s homes. CDC recommends that retailers not sell, restaurants not serve, and consumers not eat recalled Coconut Tree Brand frozen Shredded Coconut.

Romaine Lettuce E. coli Outbreak

As of January 10, 2018, there were 42 cases of E. coli O157 illness reported in five eastern provinces: Ontario (8), Quebec (15), New Brunswick (5), Nova Scotia (1), and Newfoundland and Labrador (13). Individuals became sick in November and early December 2017. Seventeen individuals were hospitalized. One individual died. Individuals who became ill were between the ages of 3 and 85 years of age. It urged the public to avoid eating romaine lettuce until more is known about the contamination.

In the United States, a total of 24 STEC O157:H7 infections have been reported from California (4), Connecticut (2), Illinois (1), Indiana (2), Maryland (3), Michigan (1), Nebraska (1), New Hampshire (2), New Jersey (1), New York (1), Ohio (1), Pennsylvania (2), Vermont (1), Virginia (1), and Washington (1). Illnesses started on dates from November 15 through December 12, 2017. Among the 18-ill people for whom CDC has information, nine were hospitalized, including one person in California who died. Two people developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a type of kidney failure.


Botulism is a rare but potentially life-threatening bacterial illness. Clostridium Botulinum bacteria grows on food and produces toxins that, when ingested, cause paralysis. Botulism poisoning is extremely rare, but so dangerous that each case is considered a public health emergency. Studies have shown that there is a 35 to 65 percent chance of death for patients who are not treated immediately and effectively with botulism antitoxin.

Infant botulism is the most common form of botulism. See below for symptoms specific to infant botulism.

Most of the botulism cases reported each year come from foods that are not canned properly at home. Botulism from commercially canned food is rare, but commercial canned chili products were identified as the source of a botulism outbreak in 2007.

Botulism neurotoxins prevent neurotransmitters from functioning properly. This means that they inhibit motor control. As botulism progresses, the patient experiences paralysis from top to bottom, starting with the eyes and face and moving to the throat, chest, and extremities. When paralysis reaches the chest, death from inability to breathe results unless the patient is ventilated. Symptoms of botulism generally appear 12 to 72 hours after eating contaminated food.  With treatment, illness lasts from 1 to 10 days.  Full recovery from botulism poisoning can take weeks to months.  Some people never fully recover.

In general, symptoms of botulism poisoning include the following:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Double vision
  • Dry skin, mouth and throat
  • Drooping eyelids
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Slurred speech
  • Muscle Weakness
  • Body Ache
  • Paralysis
  • Lack of fever

Infant botulism takes on a different form. Symptoms in an infant include lethargy, poor appetite, constipation, drooling, drooping eyelids, a weak cry, and paralysis.

The majority of botulism patients never fully recover their pre-illness health. After three months to a year of recovery, persisting side-effects are most likely permanent. These long-term effects most often include fatigue, weakness, dizziness, dry mouth, and difficulty performing strenuous tasks. Patients also report a generally less happy and peaceful psychological state than before their illness.

If a patient displays symptoms of botulism, a doctor will most likely take a blood, stool, or gastric secretion sample. The most common test for botulism is injecting the patient’s blood into a mouse to see whether the mouse displays signs of botulism, since other testing methods take up to a week.

Sometimes botulism can be difficult to diagnose, since symptoms can be mild, or confused with those of Guillan-Barre Syndrome.

If found early, botulism can be treated with an antitoxin that blocks circulation of the toxin in the bloodstream. This prevents the patient’s case from worsening, but recovery still takes several weeks.

Since botulism poisoning most commonly comes from foods improperly canned at home, the most important step in preventing botulism is to follow proper canning procedure. Ohio State University’s Extension Service provides a useful guide to sanitary canning techniques.

Further botulism prevention techniques include:

  • Not eating canned food if the container is bulging or if it smells bad, although not all strains on Clostridium Botulinumsmell
  • Storing garlic or herb-infused oil in the refrigerator
  • Not storing baked potatoes at room temperature

To prevent infant botulism, do not give even a small amount of honey to an infant, as honey is one source of infant botulism.


Listeria is a bacterium that causes a serious infection called listeriosis. Around 300 deaths are caused by Listeria infection each year, according to estimates from a 2011 CDC report.

Listeria bacteria are most commonly found in raw foods. Vegetables can be contaminated by soil and water carrying bacteria. Listeria is also found in raw animal products, such as meat and cheese.

Babies can be born with Listeria if the mother eats contaminated food during pregnancy. The death rate among newborns with Listeria is 25 to 50 percent.

Healthy adults and children hardly ever become seriously ill from Listeria. However, people at increased risk of illness from Listeria bacteria include:

  • Pregnant women – Pregnant women are 20 times more likely to get listeriosis than the average healthy adult
  • Newborns
  • People with weak immune systems
  • People with cancer, diabetes, or kidney disease
  • People with AIDS – People with AIDS are 300 times more likely to get sick from Listeria than people with normal immune systems
  • People who take gluticocorticosteroids such as cortisone
  • Elderly people

Listeria symptoms appear anywhere between 3 and 70 days after infection, but usually around 21 days later. Typical symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Muscle aches
  • Nausea or diarrhea (less common)

If infection spreads to the central nervous system, symptoms can include:

  • Headache
  • Stiff neck
  • Confusion
  • Loss of balance
  • Convulsions

Symptoms for those with Weakened Immune Systems

If a patient has a weak immune system, Listeria bacteria can invade the central nervous system and cause meningitis or a brain infection.

Symptoms for Pregnant Women and Newborns

Infected pregnant women experience mild, flu-like symptoms. However, infection during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, infection of the newborn, or stillbirth. Symptoms usually appear in newborns in the first week of life, but can also occur later on. A newborn’s Listeria symptoms are often subtle, and include irritability, fever, and poor feeding.

Doctors can determine whether patients have listeriosis by taking a blood or spinal fluid sample.

Patients who present with symptoms of listeriosis can be treated with antibiotics.

Pregnant Women

If a pregnant woman takes antibiotics promptly after contracting Listeria, she can usually prevent the spread of the Listeria bacteria to her child. Babies who have listeriosis usually take the same antibiotics as adults.

People with Normal Immune Systems

  • Thoroughly cook raw food from animal sources, such as beef, pork, or poultry
  • Wash raw vegetables before eating them
  • Keep uncooked meats separate from vegetables and cooked foods
  • Avoid products made with unpasteurized milk
  • Wash hands and cooking utensils after handling uncooked foods
  • Consume perishable and read-to-eat foods as soon as possible

People at High Risk (Pregnant women and people with weak immune systems)

  • Do not eat hot dogs or lunch meats unless they are heated to a temperature sufficient to kill Listeria bacteria
  • Avoid getting liquid from hot dog packages on other food
  • Wash hands after handling hot dogs and lunch and deli meats
  • Do not eat soft cheeses (e.g. feta, Brie, Camembert, blue cheese, and queso blanco) unless the label clearly states that they are pasteurized
  • Do not eat refrigerated pâté or meat spread, only canned or shelf-stable ones
  • Do not eat refrigerated smoked seafood, sometimes labeled as “nova-style,” “lox,” “kippered,” or “jerky.” Canned or shelf-stable smoked seafood is ok.
E. coli

Escherichia coli (E. coli) are bacteria that live in human and animal intestines. Shiga toxin-producing strains of E. coli, or STECs, are responsible for most food-related E. coliinfections. E. coli O157:H7 and other STECs like E. coli O145 and E. coli O121:H19 produce a toxin called Shiga toxin, which causes illness in humans. E. coli bacteria do not make animals such as livestock and deer, which harbor the bacteria in their intestines, ill.

It is estimated that E. coli infections account for over 2,000 hospitalizations in the United States each year, according to a 2011 CDC report.

E. coli O157:H7 is most commonly found in cows, although chickens, deer, sheep, and pigs have also been known to carry it. Meat becomes contaminated during slaughter, when infected animal intestines or feces come in contact with the carcass. Ground or mechanically tenderized meats are considered riskier than intact cuts of meat because E. colibacteria, can be mixed throughout the meat in the grinding process or during tenderization.

Other foods that sometimes become contaminated with E. coli bacteria include unpasteurized milk and cheese, unpasteurized juices, alfalfa and radish sprouts, lettuce, spinach, and water. However, any food is at risk of becoming contaminated with E. coli through cross-contamination. One can also get E. coli bacteria from contact with feces of infected animals or people.

The breakdown of sources of E. coli bacteria from 1998-2007 was as follows:

  • Food: 69%
  • Water: 18%
  • Animals or their environment: 8%
  • Person-to-person: 6%

E. coli symptoms change as the infection progresses. Symptoms usually begin two to five days after infection. The initial symptoms include the sudden onset of cramps and abdominal pain, followed by diarrhea within 24 hours. Diarrhea will become increasingly watery, and then noticeably bloody. People with E. coliinfection also often feel nauseated and experience headaches. Less common symptoms include fever and chills.

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, or HUS, follows around 10 percent of E. coli O157:H7 infections. HUS occurs when Shiga toxins get into the bloodstream and cause the part of the kidney that filters toxins out of the blood to break down, causing kidney injury and sometimes kidney failure.  Some HUS patients also suffer damage to the pancreas and central nervous system impairment.

Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infection can be diagnosed in a doctor’s office or hospital by laboratory analysis of a stool sample.

Bacteria isolated from patients’ stool samples can be compared through laboratory analysis, helping to match strains of E. coli to the food or other source it came from, a process called “fingerprinting.”

Illness from E. coli usually goes away within a week and does not cause any long-term problems.  One should make sure to remain hydrated and get proper nutrition while sick.

Antibiotics are not used as E. coli treatment, as they do not improve the illness, and some studies show that they can increase the risk of HUS.

HUS is treated by hospitalization. Since there is no way to directly cure HUS, treatment includes care to alleviate symptoms.

Any food that you eat has the potential to be contaminated with E. coli bacteria. This is why it is important to take precautions in preparing food and before eating at restaurants. You should also be aware that E. coli bacteria can survive for several weeks on surfaces, so keeping countertops clean is important. Other simple steps you can take to reduce your risk of E. coli infection include:

  • Wash hands thoroughly before and after eating and after going to the bathroom
  • Sanitize all fruits and vegetables before eating by skinning them if possible and washing them before eating
  • Check with your local department of health to find out which restaurants in your area have had recent problems with sanitation
  • Avoid allowing raw meats to come into contact with other foods while cooking
  • Do not allow children to share bath water with anyone who has diarrhea or symptoms of stomach flu
  • Wash hands thoroughly after any contact with farm animals
  • Wear disposable gloves when changing diapers of children with diarrhea
  • Make sure ground meat (such as hamburger patties) reaches an internal temperature of at least 160°F
  • Avoid drinking any non-chlorinated water


Vibriosis is caused by Vibrio bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus Vibrio parahaemolyticus that grow in coastal waters. Risk factors for acquiring gastrointestinal Vibrio infections include: eating raw or undercooked shellfish (oysters, clams, mussels) or crabs; or cross-contamination of other foods and surfaces with raw shellfish or crabs during preparation.

Disease symptoms may include: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and in some cases, signs of severe infection (septicemia), including fever and low blood pressure.

Symptoms can start from 4 to 96 hours after eating contaminated food. Vibriosis can be a mild to serious disease. People with weakened immune systems – especially those with liver disease, diabetes, and peptic ulcers – are at highest risk for serious disease. The infection is not normally communicable from person to person.

Vibrio organisms can be isolated from the stool of patients with gastroenteritis, from blood specimens, and from wound exudates. Because identification of the organism in stool requires special techniques, laboratory personnel should be notified when infection with Vibrio species is suspected.

Vibrio infections can be treated with antibiotics. Most episodes of diarrhea are mild and self-limited, and do not require treatment other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are indicated in people with wound infections, severe diarrhea, or septicemia. Septicemia should be treated with a third-generation cephalosporin plus doxycycline. In younger children, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycoside is an alternative regimen.

Medical providers are required to report, within three days, suspected or diagnosed cases of Vibriosis.

People most at risk for complications are pregnant women, people with weakened immune systems, liver disease and low stomach acidity, young children and the elderly.

Most people recover fully within a week.

Foods contaminated with Vibrio may look, smell and taste normal.

The following safe food practices will reduce your risk of getting sick from Vibrio and other foodborne illnesses.

▪          Do not eat raw shellfish.

▪          Cook shellfish thoroughly before eating, especially oysters. Shellfish should be cooked to a safe internal temperature of 74°C (165°F).

▪          Discard any shellfish that do not open when cooked.

▪          Eat shellfish right away after cooking and refrigerate leftovers.

▪          Always keep raw and cooked shellfish separate.

▪          Avoid eating oysters, or other seafood, when taking antacids as reduced stomach acid may favour the survival and growth of Vibrio species.

▪          Always wash your hands for 20 seconds with soap after using the bathroom.

▪          Avoid exposing open wounds or broken skin to warm salt or brackish water, or to raw shellfish. Wear protective clothing (like gloves) when handling raw shellfish.

▪          Wash your hands well with soap before handling any food. Be sure to wash your hands, cutting boards, counters, knives and other utensils after preparing raw foods.

People infected with Vibrio can experience a wide range of symptoms. Some do not get sick at all, while others feel as though they have a bad case of stomach flu. Few people get seriously ill.

Most people develop one or more of the following symptoms 12 to 24 hours after being infected with the bacteria:

▪          watery or bloody diarrhea

▪          stomach cramps

▪          nausea

▪          vomiting

▪          fever

▪          headache

▪          chills

▪          abnormally low blood pressure

▪          bacteria present in the blood

The illness can last up to three days, and severe illness is rare. Patients should drink plenty of liquids to replace fluids lost through diarrhea.

The top five germs that cause illnesses from food eaten in the United States are:

1.  Norovirus

Norovirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis, or what we commonly think of as stomach flu symptoms. It causes 23 million cases of gastroenteritis per year, or over half of all gastroenteritis cases in the U.S., and is the second most common virus after the common cold.

Norovirus is usually transmitted from the feces to the mouth, either by drinking contaminated food or water or by passing from person to person. Because noroviruses are easily transmitted, are resistant to common disinfectants, and are hard to contain using normal sanitary measures, they can cause extended outbreaks.

Symptoms of Norovirus

The norovirus incubation period tends to be 24 to 48 hours, after which symptoms begin to appear. An infection normally lasts only 24 to 60 hours. However, in some cases, dehydration, malnutrition, and even death can occur. These complications are more likely among children, older people, and patients in hospitals and nursing homes with weakened immune systems. Common symptoms include:

  • Nausea
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Headache
  • Low-grade fever

Norovirus Diagnosis

Norovirus usually takes its course and goes away on its own after one to three days. It is hard to diagnose using samples in a lab, and so is usually diagnosed based on the combination of common symptoms, including mild fever, vomiting, and short duration of illness.

Norovirus Treatment

There is no specific treatment for norovirus. However, it is essential to replenish fluids and minerals, as these are depleted with diarrhea.

How to Prevent Norovirus Infection

The good news is that norovirus does not multiply on food, since it is a virus and not a bacterium. There is no way to tell whether foods – like shellfish, which are often eaten raw – are contaminated with norovirus. The only way to assure you don’t get norovirus from foods like shellfish is to cook them thoroughly. Here are other norovirus prevention methods:

  • Wash hands properly, especially after being at events with catered meals, nursing homes, schools, or on cruise ships
  • Wash raw vegetables thoroughly before serving them
  • While traveling, only drink boiled drinks or carbonated bottled beverages
  • Avoid letting anyone known to have norovirus in kitchen space

2.  Salmonella

Salmonella is the second most common intestinal infection in the United States. More than 7,000 cases of Salmonella were confirmed in 2009; however, the majority of cases go unreported. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that over 1 million people in the U.S. contract Salmonella each year, and that an average of 20,000 hospitalizations and almost 400 deaths occur from Salmonella poisoning, according to a 2011 report.

Salmonella infection usually occurs when a person eats food contaminated with the feces of animals or humans carrying the bacteria.  Salmonella outbreaks are commonly associated with eggs, meat and poultry, but these bacteria can also contaminate other foods such as fruits and vegetables. Foods that are most likely to contain Salmonella include raw or undercooked eggs, raw milk, contaminated water, and raw or undercooked meats.

Salmonella is generally divided into two categories. Non-typhoidal Salmonella is the most common form, and is carried by both humans and animals. Most serotypes of Salmonella, such as Salmonella Javiana and Salmonella Enteritidis cause non-typhoidal Salmonella.  Typhoidal Salmonella, which causes typhoid fever, is rare, and is caused by Salmonella Typhi, which is carried only by humans.

Symptoms of Salmonella Infection

Symptoms of Salmonella infection, or Salmonellosis, range widely, and are sometimes absent altogether. The most common symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Typical Symptoms of Salmonella infection: Appear 6 to 72 hours after eating contaminated food and last for 3 to 7 days without treatment.

  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal Cramps
  • Fever of 100 F to 102 F

Additional symptoms

  • Bloody diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Body Aches

Typhoid Fever Symptoms: Symptoms of typhoid fever appear between 8 and 14 days after eating contaminated food and last anywhere from 3 to 60 days. They include a fever of 104 F, weakness, lethargy, abdominal pain, coughing, nosebleeds, delirium, and enlarged organs. Typhoid fever is a serious illness that can result in death.

Complication of Salmonella

Complications of Salmonella poisoning are more likely to occur among young children and people age 65 or older. Possible complications include:

Reactive ArthritisReactive arthritis is thought to occur in 2 to 15 percent of Salmonella patients. Symptoms include inflammation of the joints, eyes, or reproductive or urinary organs. On average, symptoms appear 18 days after infection

Reactive Arthritis: Campylobacter infection may also lead to reactive arthritis. Symptoms include inflammation of the joints, eyes, or reproductive or urinary organs. On average, symptoms appear 18 days after infection

Focal Infection: A focal infection occurs when Salmonella bacteria takes root in body tissue and causes illnesses such as arthritis or endocartitis. It is caused by typhoidal Salmonella only.

Salmonella Treatment

Salmonella infections generally last 3 to 7 days, and often do not require treatment. People with severe dehydration may need rehydration through an IV.

Antibiotics are recommended for those at risk of invasive disease, including infants under three months old. Typhoid fever is treated with a 14-day course of antibiotics.

Unfortunately, treatment of Salmonella has become more difficult as it has become more resistant to antibiotics. Finding the right antibiotic for a case of Salmonella is crucial to treating this bacterial infection.

Prevention of Salmonella Infection

These safety measures can help prevent Salmonella poisoning:

  • Wash your hands before preparing food and after handling raw meats
  • Cook meat and eggs thoroughly until they reach an internal temperature of 160 F (71 C)
  • Do not eat foods containing raw eggs or milk, such as undercooked French toast
  • Avoid cooking raw meat in the microwave, as it may not reach a high enough internal temperature to kill Salmonella bacteria and may be unevenly cooked
  • Avoid bringing uncooked meat into contact with food that will not be cooked (i.e. salad)
  • Wash hands with soap after handling reptiles or animal feces
  • Always wash your hands after going to the bathroom

3.  Clostridium Perfringens

Clostridium perfringens are bacteria that produce toxins harmful to humans. Clostridium perfringens and its toxins are found everywhere in the environment, but human infection is most likely to come from eating food with Clostridium perfringens in it. Food poisoning from Clostridium perfringens fairly common, but is typically not too severe, and is often mistaken for the 24-hour flu.

Source of Clostridium Perfringens

The majority of outbreaks are associated with undercooked meats, often in large quantities of food prepared for a large group of people and left to sit out for long periods of time. Because of this, it is sometimes referred to as the “food service germ.” Meat products such as stews, casseroles, and gravy are the most common sources of illness from C. perfringens. Most outbreaks come from food whose temperature is poorly controlled. If food is kept between 70 and 140 F, it is likely to grow Clostridium perfringens bacteria.

Symptoms of Clostridium Perfringens Infection

People generally experience symptoms of Clostridium perfringens infection 6 to 24 hours after consuming the bacteria or toxins. Clostridium perfringens toxins cause abdominal pain and stomach cramps, followed by diarrhea. Nausea is also a common symptom. Fever and vomiting are not normally symptoms of poisoning by Clostridium perfringens toxins.

Illness from Clostridium Perfringens generally lasts around 24 hours, and is rarely fatal.

Complication from Clostridium Perfringens

The Type C strain of Clostridium perfringens can cause a more serious condition called Pig-bel Syndrome. This syndrome can cause death of intestinal cells and can often be fatal.

Preventing a Clostridium Perfringens Infection

To prevent infection by Clostridium perfringens, follow these tips:

  • Cook foods containing meat thoroughly
  • If keeping foods out, make sure they maintain a temperature of 140 F (60 C)
  • When storing food in the refrigerator, divide it into pieces with a thickness of three inches or less so that it cools faster
  • Reheat foods to at least 165 F (74 C)

4.  Campylobacter

Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Over 6,000 cases of Campylobacter infection were reported in 2009 alone, but many cases are not reported to public health authorities. A 2011 report from the CDC estimates that Campylobacter causes approximately 845,000 illnesses in the United States each year.

Campylobacter is found most often in food, particularly in chicken. Food is contaminated when it comes into contact with animal feces.  Any raw poultry may contain Campylobacter, including organic and “free range” products. In fact, studies have found Campylobacter contamination on up to 88 percent of chicken carcasses. Despite the commonness of Campylobacter, however, infections are usually isolated events, and widespread outbreaks are rare.

Campylobacter Symptoms

Symptoms of food poisoning from Campylobacter usually occur 2 to 5 days after a person eats contaminated food, but may take up to 10 days to appear. The most common symptom of a Campylobacter infection is diarrhea, which is often bloody.  Typical symptoms include:

  • Diarrhea: Diarrhea ranges from mild to severe and is often bloody
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain

Two age groups are most commonly affected by Campylobacter: children under 5 years of age and young adults aged 15-29.

Complications of Campylobacter Infection

Although complications from Campylobacter food poisoning are unlikely, they do occur in some cases. The following is a list of possible long-term consequences of Campylobacter infection.

Guillan-Barré Syndrome (GBS): Although rare, Guillan-Barré Syndrome is the most common cause of acute generalized paralysis in the western world.  GBS occurs when the antibodies the body builds up against Campylobacter attack one’s nerve cells. Symptoms of GBS appear several weeks after diarrheal illness. Approximately one in every 1000 reported Campylobacter cases results in GBS.

Reactive Arthritis: Campylobacter infection may also lead to reactive arthritis. Symptoms include inflammation of the joints, eyes, or reproductive or urinary organs. On average, symptoms appear 18 days after infection.

Other complications: Campylobacter may also cause appendicitis or infect specific parts of the body, including the abdominal cavity, the heart, the central nervous system, the gall bladder, the urinary tract, or the blood stream.

Diagnosis of Campylobacter Infection

To assess whether someone has a Campylobacter infection, doctors take a stool sample and send it to a laboratory for testing.  However, if the stool sample is taken after an individual has begun antibiotic treatment, the test results may be falsely negative.

Campylobacter Treatment

Campylobacter infections usually resolve after about a week, although treatment with antibiotics can shorten the course of the illness. Patients with Campylobacter poisoning should drink lots of fluids to stay hydrated as long as the diarrhea lasts. Antidiarrheal medication may also help lessen symptoms.

The amount of foodborne bacteria resistant to antibiotics is on the rise, so certain antibiotics may prove ineffective at treating a given type of Campylobacter. Finding an effective antibiotic is key to treating this bacterial infection.

How to Prevent Campylobacter Infection

Campylobacter jejuni grows easily if contaminated foods are left out at room temperature. The bacterium is sensitive to heat and other sterilization methods, including pasteurization, cooking meat fully, and water chlorination. Follow these easy safety procedures to avoid Campylobacter infection.

  • Make sure the thickest part of any poultry product you are cooking reaches 165 F (74 C)
  • Choose the coolest part of the car to transport meat and poultry home from the store
  • Defrost meat and poultry in the refrigerator or microwave, making sure juices do not drip
  • Do not cook stuffing inside the bird
  • Never leave food out at room temperature for over two hours
  • Use pasteurized milk and eggs
  • Wash fruits and vegetables carefully
  • Wash hands thoroughly after…
  • Contact with pets or farm animals
  • Preparing food, especially poultry
  • Changing diapers
  • Children return from school or daycare

Note: Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that causes peptic ulcers and gastritis, is often misconstrued as a Campylobacter. While it was originally thought that Helicobacter pylori was indeed a Campylobacter due to its similar structure, it is now known to be a different bacteria.

5.  Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), often referred to as “staph,” is a bacterium commonly carried on the skin or in the nose of healthy people. S. aureus typically causes a skin infection, but can cause infections in the bloodstream and major organs. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) occurs when the bacteria become resistant to the antibiotic, methicillin and other more common antibiotics such as oxacillin, penicillin and amoxicillin, making it more difficult to treat. The rate of invasive MRSA (infections in typically sterile sites like the bloodstream) is estimated to be 32 per 100,000 persons in the United States; the mortality (death) rate is thought to be about 6 per 100,000 persons. The risk of invasive MRSA infections is highest among older individuals, Blacks/African Americans, and men.

MRSA infections were initially limited to hospitals and nursing homes, especially among patients with weakened immune systems. Since the 1980s, community-acquired cases and outbreaks also have been reported. Community acquired cases are those not related to past year hospitalization or medical procedures like dialysis, surgery, or catheterization. These infections typically occur among otherwise healthy individuals and are more likely to be limited to skin infections. An increase in the virulence of MRSA bacteria in the past decade, however, has been responsible for more severe and sometimes fatal community acquired infections. More recently, MRSA has been identified in food animals and a few outbreaks have been ‘food-initiated’ or foodborne. In one such outbreak, those affected developed typical foodborne illness symptoms, such as vomiting and stomach cramps,

Sources and Transmission

The major site where people carry S. aureus is in the nasal passages. Approximately 25% to 30% of the population is colonized (when bacteria are present, but not causing an infection) with S. aureus, but only about 1% of the population is colonized with MRSA. The main mode of transmission of staph and MRSA is through hands, which may become contaminated by contact with colonized or infected individuals or through contact with colonized or infected body sites of other persons. Contact with devices, items, or environmental surfaces contaminated with body fluids containing staph or MRSA may also cause infection. Other factors contributing to transmission include close skin-to-skin contact, crowded conditions, and poor hygiene.

Studies in recent years have demonstrated that food-producing animals also carry MRSA. Studies conducted in the U.S. as well as several other countries, including Austria, Canada, China, Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, South Korea, Taiwan, and The Netherlands, have isolated MRSA mainly from pigs. Other animals testing positive for MRSA have included chickens, cattle, and dairy cows. In addition, the testing of raw meat samples from slaughter houses and retail markets has revealed MRSA in several countries. This is likely due to the high use of antibiotics in food animal production. Estimates of the amounts of growth-promoting antibiotics used in U.S. animal production range from 3.1 million to approximately 25 million pounds annually. In some instances, animal strains are similar or identical to human strains. In fact, the presence of MRSA in food-producing animals has also led to the transmission of MRSA to farmers, their families, and veterinarians, resulting in human colonization.

Of even greater concern is the identification of MRSA in retail meats and food products, including pork, beef, and dairy products. This has occurred in the U. S. as well as in Austria, China, The Netherlands, Portugal, and South Korea. However, few foodborne or food-initiated outbreaks have been reported. One ‘food-initiated’ outbreak in The Netherlands involved the transmission of MRSA from a colonized but healthy hospital dietary worker to a patient through food. The contaminated food (which tested positive for MRSA) was ingested by the patient who was severely immunocompromised, and the patient contracted a fatal infection. Transmission from that patient to other hospital workers and subsequently to other patients resulted in a major outbreak. In another food-related case, a community-acquired foodborne illness outbreak occurred in Tennessee. In that outbreak, a family developed typical foodborne illness symptoms after eating food prepared by a commercial foodhandler who was colonized with MRSA (see details below)


Community-acquired MRSA infections most often present as a skin or soft tissue infection such as a boil or abscess. Individuals frequently recall a “spider bite”. The involved site is red, swollen, and painful and may have pus or other drainage. MRSA infections also can cause more serious infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, a rapidly progressive, life-threatening infection that involves skin, soft tissue, and deep fascia; bloodstream infections; or pneumonia, leading to symptoms of shortness of breath, fever, and chills. As seen in at least one outbreak, individuals with foodborne illness caused by MRSA may experience nausea, vomiting and stomach cramps.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), individuals with MRSA infections that meet all of the following criteria likely have community-acquired MRSA infections:

  • Diagnosis was made in the outpatient setting or by a culture positive for MRSA within 48 hours after admission to the hospital.
  • No medical history of MRSA infection or colonization.
  • No medical history in the past year of:
    a. Hospitalization
    b. Admission to a nursing home, skilled nursing facility, or hospice
    c. Dialysis
    d. Surgery

Detection and Treatment

In general, a culture is obtained from the infection site (skin, blood, or urine) and sent to the microbiology laboratory. In the case of a skin Infection, a culture is taken from a small biopsy of skin or drainage from the infected site. A sputum culture should be taken in the event of pneumonia. If S. aureus is isolated, the organism should be tested to determine which antibiotics will be effective for treating the infection.

Staph skin infections, such as boils or abscesses, may be treated by incision and drainage, depending on severity. Antibiotic treatment, if indicated, should be guided by laboratory testing of the bacteria to determine antibiotic susceptibility.


Frequent handwashing is the most important way to prevent spread of staph in the community. If an individual has a skin infection, it should be kept covered. Keep wounds that are draining or have pus covered with clean, dry bandages until healed. Bandages and tape can be discarded with the regular trash.

Family members and others in close contact should wash their hands frequently with soap and water or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer, especially after changing the bandage or touching the infected wound. Do not share personal items, such as towels, washcloths, razors, clothing or uniforms, that may have had contact with the infected wound or bandage. Wash sheets, towels, and clothes that become soiled with water and laundry detergent. Use a dryer to dry clothes completely.

Since little is known about the transmission of MRSA through food, other than through foodhandlers, there are no specific recommendations about the prevention of foodborne illness with regard to MRSA. In general, individuals should wash their hands with soap and water before preparing food, especially commercial foodhandlers; wash produce; wash cutting boards often; wash hands, utensils, and cutting boards after they have been in contact with raw meat or poultry and before they touch another food; and refrigerate food within 2 hours of serving. Use a food thermometer to cook meat and poultry to proper temperatures and keep hot foods hot; cold foods should be kept at 40°F or below.

2017 was somewhat of a quiet year for significant, yet still deadly, outbreaks.

Listeria – Cheese

The first to be noticed was announced by the CDC in March of 2017.  By then the CDC had been collaborating with public health and regulatory officials in several states and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate a multistate outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infections (listeriosis). According to the CDC, Listeria specimens were collected from ill people from September 1, 2016 to March 13, 2017. Ill people ranged in age from less than one year to 89 years, with a median age of 52 years. Five of eight ill people were female. All eight (100%) ill people were hospitalized, including two people from Connecticut and Vermont who died. One of the illnesses was reported in a newborn. Victims came from Connecticut (1), Florida (1), New York (5) and Vermont (1)

Epidemiologic and laboratory evidence indicated that soft raw milk cheese made by Vulto Creamery of Walton, New York, was the likely source of this outbreak. State and local health departments interviewed ill people or their family members about the foods they ate or other exposures in the month before their illness started. Based on those interviews, eight (100%) of eight people ate a soft cheese. The ill resident of Florida reported traveling to New York state and eating soft cheese there before becoming ill. Available information indicated that cheese made by Vulto Creamery was for sale at stores where at least seven of the ill people bought cheese before getting sick.

The Connecticut Department of Public Health collected leftover cheeses from the home of the deceased person in Connecticut. The outbreak strain of Listeria was identified in a leftover cheese that the family identified as Ouleout cheese from Vulto Creamery. The New York Division of Milk Control and Dairy Services collected three intact wheels of Ouleout cheese from Vulto Creamery. The outbreak strain of Listeria was identified in samples taken from the three wheels of cheese. On March 7, 2017, Vulto Creamery recalled all lots of Ouleout, Miranda, Heinennellie, and Willowemoc soft wash-rind raw milk cheeses. On March 10, the company expanded the recall to include four other cheeses: Andes, Blue Blais, Hamden, and Walton Umber. The raw milk cheeses were distributed nationwide, with most sold in stores in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states; California; Chicago; Portland, Oregon; and Washington, D.C.

E. coli – Soy Nut Butter

The CDC reported on May 2017, that although the outbreak investigation is over, illnesses may continue for some time. The recalled SoyNut Butter products have long shelf lives and may still be in people’s homes or in institutions. People who don’t know about the recalls could continue to eat the products and get sick.

Thirty-two people infected with the outbreak strains of STEC O157:H7 were reported from 12 states. Arizona 4, California 5, Florida 2, Illinois 1, Massachusetts 1, Maryland 1, Missouri 1, New Jersey 1, Oregon 11, Virginia 2, Washington 2 and Wisconsin 1. Twelve people were hospitalized. Nine people developed hemolytic uremic syndrome, a type of kidney failure. Twenty-six (81%) of the 32-ill people in this outbreak were younger than 18 years. Epidemiologic, laboratory, and traceback evidence indicated that I.M. Healthy brand SoyNut Butter was the likely source of this outbreak. Several soy nut products were recalled.

On March 28, 2017, the FDA issued a Suspension of Food Facility Registration Order to Dixie Dew of Erlanger, Ky., after an inspection revealed insanitary conditions at the firm that could affect the safety of finished products. Dixie Dew is the contract manufacturer for SoyNut Butter Company’s soy nut butter products. The close out of the outbreak investigation does not affect the suspension order.

Botulism – Cheese Sauce

Also in May, the California Department of Health reported an outbreak of foodborne botulism originating from the Valley Oak Food and Fuel gas station in Walnut Grove left 10 people hospitalized, the state Department of Health reported Friday, and an Antioch resident died as a result.

The botulism outbreak was reported to have come from nacho cheese sauce sold at the Valley Oak Food and Fuel gas station in Walnut Grove. Inspection reports for the Valley Oaks Food and Fuel station show that on May 6 and 7, officers impounded bags of Montecito nacho cheese tortilla chips and closed the facility. On May 8, health officers from the state Department of Health impounded four bags of Gehls cheese sauce and reopened the store to sell prepackaged food items only.

Let’s hope for even fewer outbreak in the coming New Year.

A bit(e) more history:

Poisoned: The True Story of the Deadly E. Coli Outbreak That Changed the Way Americans Eat, By Jeff Benedict

2017 – This Food Poisoning Expert Revealed The 6 Things He Refuses To EatHealthyWay, R.J.Wilson, May 18

2016 –  How one Attorney Is Trying to Make Food Safer Civil Beat News, Rui Kaneya, August 22

2016 – This genius lawyer is our best hope against deadly food poisoning Mother Jones, Kiera Butler, May 20

2016 – 7 Things We Learned About Food Safety Oversight From A Foodborne IllnessExpert Consumerist, Ashlee Kieler, February 2

2015 – Profile in Obsession: Bill Marler, Naomi Tomky, March 24

2015 – The New Yorker – A Bug in the System The New Yorker, Wil S. Hylton, February 2

2014 – Q&A: Food Safety Lawyer Bill Marler on What Not to Eat The National Law Journal, Jenna Greene, November 3

2012 – Bill Marler, Attorney, Blogger, and Food Safety Advocate, Talks Turkey (Or Spinach, Rather) Miami New Times, Ily Goyanes, November 2

2012 – Bill Marler Interview, Part Two: His Most Difficult Cases and Lobbying Congress Miami New Times, Ily Goyanes, November 14

2012 – Profiles in Public Health Law: Interview with William “Bill” Marler CDC Public Health Law News, July

2012 – Food Safety Lawyer Bill Marler On Sprouts, Raw Milk, and Why “Local” Isn’t Always Safer Blisstree.com, Hanna Brooks Olsen, March 5

2011 – Listeria outbreak draws Seattle lawyer to battle Associated Press, Shannon Dininny, October 9

2011 – Food-Borne Illness Attorney: Top Foods to Avoid ABC News, Neal Karlinsky, September 29

2011 – How to Keep Food Free of Salmonella: Lawsuits The Atlantic, Barry Estabrook, August 31

2011 – More Stomach-Churning Facts about the E. Coli Outbreak New York Times, Mark Bittman, June 8

2011 – Bill Marler: A Personal Injury Attorney and More The Xemplar, Nicole Black, June 1

2011 – Good Food Hero: Bill Marler, Food Safety Attorney Good Food World, Gail Nickel-Kailing, May 23

2011- Poisoned: The True Story of the Deadly E. coli Outbreak that Changed the Way Americans Eat Inspire Books, Jeff Benedict, May 15

2011 – New Book Chronicles Islander Marler’s Work Bainbridge Island Review, Connie Mears, May 13

2010 – Food Safety Lawyer Puts His Money Where Your Mouth Is AOL News, Andrew Schneider, September 29

2009 – Bill Marler: Taking on E.coli, BigAg, Raw Milk, Conspiracy Theorists, and the USDA Simple, Good, and Tasty, Shai Danielson, December 16

2009 – Food Safety Lawyer’s Wish: Put Me Out of Business Seattle Times, Maureen O’Hagan, November 23

2009 – WSU Discourse on Food Safety, Courtesy Seattle Lawyer Kitsap Sun, Tristan Baurick,  August 29

2009 – Calling for Real Food Safety Reform: Bill Marler for FSIS Civil Eats, David Murphy, June 24

2009 – When Food Sickens, He Heads for Courthouse Minneapolis Star-Tribune, Matt McKinney, June 24

2009 –  Bill Marler, The Food-Safety Litigator Culinate, Miriam Wolf, April

2009 – Food Fight:Bill Marler’s Beef (PDF) Washington Law & Politics, David Volk, May

2009 – Candidate for Top FSIS Job talks E. coli Testing, Irradiation, Education The Meating Place, Ann Bagel Storck, February 6

2009 – Five Minutes with Bill Marler, Well Known Lawyer, Food Safety Activist CattleNetwork, Chuck Jolley, February 5

2009 – Outspoken Food Safety Attorney Wants In The Washington Post, Ed O’Keefe, January 27

2008 –  E. Coli Lawyer Is Busier Than Ever Associated Press, February 4

2007 –  Legally Speaking: The Food Poisoning Lawyer The Southeast Texas Record, John G. Browning, November 20

2007 –  The Nation’s Leading Food-borne Illness Attorney Tells All Washington State Magazine, Hannelore Sudermann, August

2007 – Food Fight Portland Oregonian, Alex Pulaski, March

2006 –  How a Tiny Law Firm Made Hay Out of Tainted Spinach The Wall Street Journal, Heather Won Tesoriero and Peter Lattman, September 27

2001 –  THE INSIDE STORY: How 11 Schoolkids Got $4.75 Million in E. coli Lawsuit MeatingPlace.com, Bryan Salvage, March 7

2001 –  Hammer Time: Preparation Pays When Disputes Escalate to Lawsuits Meat & Poultry Magazine, David Hendee

2001 –  For Seattle Attorney, A Bacterium Brings Riches—and Enemies The Wall Street Journal, Rachel Zimmerman

2001 –  The Bug That Ate The Burger Los Angeles Times, Emily Green, June

1999 –  Courting Publicity, Attorney Makes Safe Food His Business Seattle Post, Maggie Leung, September 7